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Psorilax:Veloce |creme cheratolitiche per psoriasi

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Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, originale

Innanzitutto, alcune osservazioni generali sul simposio:

  • I pazienti con malattia psoriasica sono incredibilmente fortunati ad avere ricercatori, dermatologi e reumatologi così appassionati (intelligenti e articolati) che lavorano per nostro conto.
  • Vi è un notevole livello di coordinamento, collaborazione, consapevolezza reciproca e condivisione delle informazioni tra gli scienziati che hanno parlato e partecipato all'evento.
  • Un numero notevole di oratori ha riconosciuto come NPF avesse supportato la propria ricerca, finanziando, collaborando, risorse o dai campioni della Biobanca Victor Henschel della National Psoriasis.

Ecco i miei appunti come paziente di vari oratori al simposio:

1. Alexis Ogdie, M.D. (Università della Pennsylvania) – prevenzione dell'artrite psoriasica. Ogden ha notato i significativi progressi nella terapia per la psoriasi e l'artrite psoriasica (PsA), commentando le metriche ottenibili dagli anni '90 ad oggi. Ha notato l'eterogeneità (sintomi e gravità diversi) delle malattie tra i pazienti.

2. Nehal Mehta, M.D. (U.S. National Institutes of Health) – prevenzione delle comorbidità della psoriasi. Mehta si è concentrato sulle complicanze cardiovascolari per i pazienti con psoriasi, principalmente sull'infiammazione delle arterie intorno al cuore. Fortunatamente per i pazienti, ha confermato che il trattamento della psoriasi con farmaci biologici anti-infiammatori come gli inibitori del fattore di necrosi tumorale (Enbrel, Humira, ecc.) E persino i farmaci con interleuchina 17 (Cosentyx e Taltz) tendono a modulare gli impatti all'interno e intorno al cuore. Ha commentato che è importante per i pazienti monitorare la pressione sanguigna e l'indice di massa corporea per tentare di controllare le comorbidità (condizioni concorrenti) per la psoriasi.

3. Christopher Ritchlin, M.D. (Università di Rochester) – eterogeneità e previsione dei risultati nell'artrite psoriasica. Ritchlin notò la cassetta degli attrezzi estesa che i reumatologi ora devono trattare la PsA. Le prime indicazioni della malattia possono comparire nella pelle, nelle unghie e nel midollo osseo. Ha citato un articolo completo che ha scritto per il New England Journal of Medicine. Sfortunatamente, la PsA include più domini di malattie e impatti variabili e diversi.

4. Matthew Patrick, Ph.D. (Università del Michigan) – psoriasi e diabete di tipo 2. C'è un piccolo ma significativo effetto causale tra questi due stati patologici. Si raccomanda di mantenere un indice di massa corporea sano.

5. L'oratore principale, Rachael Clark, M.D., Ph.D. (Brigham and Women’s Hospital) – approfondimenti immunologici sulla psoriasi. Clark ha osservato che la mediazione delle cellule T è stata raggiunta dalla ciclosporina (una terapia sistemica a breve termine). Ha commentato che la malattia psoriasica coinvolge una “cellula T unicamente testarda” in una malattia unicamente umana. Ha discusso del fenomeno delle “cellule T di memoria residenti nei tessuti” (TRM), osservando che le attuali terapie sopprimono solo l'attivazione di queste cellule T; questo è meglio dimostrato dal fatto che quando una terapia viene interrotta, si verifica una recidiva della malattia, in genere con lesioni nei precedenti siti di presentazione. Delle attuali terapie farmacologiche disponibili, IL-23 è la più efficace. I ricercatori stanno cercando di sviluppare metodi per impoverire i TRM; una soluzione proposta è il blocco degli acidi grassi. È stato esplorato un altro trattamento: le aree colpite dal “bombardamento fotografico”, dove negli studi sui topi si è verificato un impoverimento dell'80% dei TRM.

6. Christopher Griffiths, M.D., OBE (Università di Manchester, Regno Unito) – eterogeneità e previsione dei risultati nella psoriasi. Griffiths notò che la pratica medica era attualmente reattiva, ma doveva essere proattiva; le sue parole chiave erano “prevedere, prevenire, personalizzare e partecipare”. Mentre elogiava i farmaci che trattavano il “ciclo infiammatorio” (IL-17 e IL-23), non vedeva l'ora di sviluppare ulteriormente i trattamenti orali di piccole molecole. Ha indicato il registro di sicurezza a lungo termine di BADBIR nel Regno Unito e in Irlanda. Ha anche detto che l'HLA Cw6 + (un segmento di DNA praticabile su un cromosoma o un allele), che è noto da tempo come prova della psoriasi, è un fattore predittivo di successo con il biologico. Come altri oratori, Griffiths ha chiesto la diagnosi precoce e l'intervento precoce come il modo migliore per curare la malattia psoriasica.

7. Jose Scher, M.D. (NYU Langone Medical Center) – contribuenti microbici alla malattia psoriasica. Un focus della ricerca di Scher sono stati i microbi (un batterio che causa la malattia) nell'intestino. I microbi sono lì per promuovere l'immunità del corpo e c'è un microbioma intestinale della psoriasi (microrganismi). Scher sta lavorando alla costruzione di un modello predittivo per la PsA nelle popolazioni psoriasiche ad alto rischio. Ha menzionato “Psorcast” – una piattaforma digitale, open source, basata su smartphone, un'app per tenere traccia degli elementi dei sintomi e del trattamento della PsA.

8. Christopher Ritchlin, M.D., MPH – eterogeneità e previsione dei risultati nell'artrite psoriasica. Ritchlin pensa che la PsA possa essere sette malattie in una. L'eterogeneità tra i pazienti mette in discussione gli sforzi per trattare costantemente il target. Le terapie combinate hanno contribuito a colpire patologie molecolari divergenti. L'infiammazione sinoviale (rivestimento delle articolazioni) è diversa in PsA rispetto all'artrite reumatoide, il che può spiegare perché i trattamenti e la loro efficacia sono diversi per le due forme di artrite.

9. Vinod Chandran, M.D., Ph.D. (Università di Toronto) – scoperta di biomarcatori nell'artrite psoriasica. I biomarcatori devono essere misurati e valutati oggettivamente. Questo è impegnativo a causa dell'eterogeneità della PsA come malattia. La previsione medica porta a inferenze sullo stato attuale o futuro della malattia e le previsioni devono essere denominate nel tempo. Finora, gli indicatori anatomici sono psoriasi cutanea, psoriasi del cuoio capelluto, uveite (occhio), conta delle articolazioni e danni. Un biomarcatore può essere tramite una biopsia sinoviale.

10. Junko Takeshita, M.D., Ph.D. (Università della Pennsylvania) – screening del cancro. Poiché esiste una preoccupazione teorica sul rischio di linfoma a cellule T nei pazienti con psoriasi grave, le linee guida raccomandano lo screening del cancro per i pazienti con psoriasi. Tali pazienti devono sottoporsi a vaccinazioni antinfluenzali ogni anno.

11. Jeremy Sokolove (che rappresenta AbbVie al momento del simposio) – approfondimenti del settore. Solo un numero limitato di fornitori sta prescrivendo terapie sistemiche (meno del 20 percento) e la maggior parte non segue le raccomandazioni NPF Treat to Target.

12. Philip Mease, M.D. (Università di Washington) – studi clinici e cure. Dobbiamo rivedere le misure dei risultati negli studi clinici sulla PsA. Ha definito la “remissione” come una diluizione della gravità del dolore, un “recupero temporaneo”. Ciò può essere determinato mediante test clinici, di imaging e immunologici. La “remissione clinica” è un'attività della malattia minima o un'attività della malattia bassa. “DAPSA” (o attività della malattia in PsA) è una misura centrata congiuntamente di PsA. Le metriche della gravità della psoriasi possono includere la misurazione della sinovite ecografica, l'entesite (infiammazione dell'area in cui il tendine o il legamento si inseriscono nell'osso) e abbiamo bisogno di più imaging molecolare. La sensibilizzazione centrale (ad es. Fibromialgia) si verifica nel 18 percento della popolazione PsA. Potrebbe esserci un'espansione delle terapie combinate per mitigare la malattia.

13. Sessione di approfondimento sulle definizioni di cura / prevenzione. Una delle sessioni più interessanti è stata una discussione in piccoli gruppi di cura contro remissione. Mi è sembrato che i dermatologi partecipanti fossero più ottimisti riguardo al potenziale per una cura per la psoriasi rispetto ai reumatologi come per una cura per la PsA. In parte, ciò riflette il fatto che la pelle soggetta a lesioni psoriasiche in genere ritorna all'aspetto normale se trattata in modo efficace (ad es. Senza cicatrici), mentre un'articolazione può subire danni irreparabili a meno che non venga trattata in una fase molto precoce dello sviluppo della malattia entro mesi di diagnosi. Tuttavia, i farmaci che potrebbero scatenare una remissione a lungo termine della psoriasi o della PsA rappresenterebbero un importante sviluppo positivo.

14. Diversi partecipanti hanno citato commenti fatti da Rachael Clarke, M.D. (vedi sopra) riguardo ai TRM per notare che forse una cura è sfuggente ma dovrebbe essere possibile una remissione a lungo termine.

Il 50% dei pazienti non è soddisfatto dei propri trattamenti. I pazienti con psoriasi da moderata a grave devono sottoporsi a terapie sistemiche (i trattamenti topici e la fototerapia potrebbero non essere sufficienti per mitigare la malattia). I trattamenti attuali e futuri hanno il potenziale per cambiare la traiettoria di vita della psoriasi e dei pazienti con PsA. L'identificazione dei sottogruppi di pazienti è l'unico modo affidabile per indirizzare la risposta del paziente. Definire l'intestino come bersaglio centrale dell'artrite da spondilite (colonna vertebrale). I ricercatori devono convincere l'industria farmaceutica che la loro proposta merita la loro attenzione ed è in grado di essere commercializzata. Tutti stanno lavorando per migliorare l'efficacia e la sicurezza dei farmaci.

Definire la cura – è troppo ambizioso senza miglioramenti nelle infrastrutture. Tuttavia, i pazienti con trapianto di midollo osseo sono stati curati dalla psoriasi. La remissione è in terapia o fuori terapia? Una definizione biologica di cura è difficile se esiste una predisposizione genetica (e TRM).

Vi era un consenso generale sul fatto che uno strumento diagnostico per la PsA fosse assolutamente necessario per garantire che una diagnosi precoce di PsA seguita da un intervento efficace precoce (ad esempio, l'uso di un farmaco biologico idealmente entro sei mesi dalla diagnosi, secondo il trattamento recentemente adottato dall'American College of Rheumatology linee guida sviluppate in collaborazione con NPF).

I reumatologi hanno spostato la discussione sulla prevenzione della psoriasi. (Questo è anche al centro delle prossime borse di ricerca NPF.)

15. Sessione di approfondimento su lacune cliniche e scientifiche nelle conoscenze e su come affrontare. Non è ancora chiaro se la psoriasi sia una malattia o una gamma di malattie multiple Esistono sottoinsiemi clinici di psoriasi. Ciò riflette l'eterogeneità clinica della malattia psoriasica e l'eterogeneità delle risposte al trattamento.

Ciò rappresenta un'opportunità per prevenire l'insorgenza della psoriasi, ma cosa dovrebbe essere studiato? Esistono biomarcatori nella pelle, nelle ossa o nelle articolazioni? I biomarcatori cutanei sono presenti nelle lesioni o sotto la pelle? Quando ci si concentra sull'immunologia, qual è l'impatto dei TRM? Che dire di malattie sovrapposte come la spondilite anchilosante (colonna vertebrale), il morbo di Crohn o il diabete? Ci sono percorsi comuni? Quali sono i modelli per il trattamento? Qual è l'onere della malattia? Non esiste uno studio statunitense sulla prevalenza della psoriasi. Ciò può essere importante per lo sviluppo di farmaci.

Come affrontare le lacune? Ognuno dei seguenti sarà rilevante: NIH, NPF, pazienti e clinici, partnership con l'industria farmaceutica. È necessario sviluppare nel tempo gruppi di studio, storie di vita reale. Dobbiamo collaborare alla raccolta dei dati e armonizzare e standardizzare la raccolta dei dati.

16. Breakout session su curare i gruppi di lavoro e curare la road map organizzativa. I dermatologi stanno aprendo la strada all'immunologia e agli studi clinici. È stata dimostrata la necessità di studi longitudinali (a lungo termine) su pazienti affetti da psoriasi e psa. Campioni di sangue e campioni di microbioma devono essere raccolti e analizzati. Dobbiamo studiare l'idea di prevenzione delle malattie per la psoriasi e di inibire lo sviluppo della PsA. Abbiamo bisogno di una migliore comprensione dell'eterogeneità della psoriasi e della psa.

In termini di cura, dobbiamo continuare ad esplorare le terapie combinate, l'eliminazione dei TRM (poiché la loro soppressione non è una cura). Ciò può richiedere un modo trasformativo di guardare allo stato della malattia.

Ciò richiederà finanziamenti significativi. NPF può fornire la scintilla e può galvanizzare le risorse. NPF utilizzerà sovvenzioni multi-istituzionali per favorire una maggiore cooperazione, collaborazione e condivisione dei dati. NPF e la comunità di ricerca chiederanno ulteriori finanziamenti da NIH e altre fonti di finanziamento.

Aiutaci a raggiungere i nostri traguardi di ricerca

Supportare ricerche promettenti che aprono la strada a migliori trattamenti, una migliore qualità della vita e una cura.

Foto: Rick Seiden (a destra) al Simposio sulla cura.

Psorilax:recensioni |crema psoriasi ungueale

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Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, come si usa

Potresti averlo o sentito parlare di qualcun altro che ce l'ha. Sì, è la psoriasi e 7,5 milioni di persone negli Stati Uniti soffrono di questa malattia dolorosa. Alcuni di voi l'hanno accettato e vivono con esso. La psoriasi si è diffusa abbastanza per alcuni di voi, che vi rende coscienti e che l'autocoscienza sta influenzando la vostra autostima e, in alcuni casi, vi allontana da tutto, creando stress nella vostra vita e prendendo un pedaggio sul sistema immunitario . La psoriasi è una malattia autoimmune e un sistema immunitario in declino peggiorerà la psoriasi. Per coloro che sono steroidi per un lungo periodo di tempo, quando smetti di lavorare e interrompi gli steroidi, finisci con la sindrome da astinenza da steroidi e rendi la tua vita miserabile.

Anche se ci sono così tante scoperte e farmaci disponibili ora, non esiste un'unica cura completa disponibile a causa della complessa natura della psoriasi. Puoi consultare il tuo medico e ottenere la prescrizione della psoriasi, ma se puoi integrare alcune terapie alternative, può aiutare ad alleviare un po 'della gravità. La maggior parte delle persone affette da psoriasi di solito graffia l'area a causa della secchezza e del prurito, facendo sanguinare l'area.

Trent'anni fa, Brian Jegasothy MD, formalmente presidente del Dipartimento di Dermatologia dell'Università di Pittsburg, negli Stati Uniti e io, aveva sviluppato la Crema di guarigione e ripristino di Hylunia e la Crema di ricostruzione ricostruttiva di Hymed per la pelle di psoriasi ed eczema usando le proprietà idratanti e curative dell'acido ialuronico. L'acido ialuronico è un componente importante della pelle, dove è coinvolto nella riparazione dei tessuti. La pelle fornisce una barriera meccanica all'ambiente esterno e agisce per prevenire l'ingresso di agenti infettivi. Una volta feriti, i tessuti sottostanti sono esposti alle infezioni; pertanto, una guarigione rapida ed efficace è di fondamentale importanza per ricostruire una funzione barriera. Sebbene si trovi naturalmente in tutto il nostro corpo, l'acido ialuronico – purtroppo – ha una breve durata di conservazione ed è naturalmente scomposto e scaricato dal corpo in uno o tre giorni. Per questo motivo, è indispensabile che il corpo si reintegri continuamente con acido ialuronico. L'applicazione quotidiana di Hylunia's Healing and Restoring Cream and Hymed's Reconstructive Crème quante volte sono necessarie aiuta a idratare e guarire la pelle e minimizza il prurito.

Secondo Brian Jegasothy, “L'acido ialuronico è probabilmente l'umettante topico più efficace attualmente disponibile – più efficace nelle sue proprietà di ritenzione idrica rispetto alla glicerina, sorbitolo, collagene ecc. Inoltre, la sua capacità di associarsi ai lipidi nelle membrane superficiali della pelle ne migliora notevolmente la capacità fornire la sua acqua trattenuta e arricchire la sua proprietà riducendo la perdita di acqua transepidermica ”. Negli ultimi 30 anni, la crema curativa e riparatrice di Hylunia e la crema ricostruttiva di Hymed hanno così tanto sollievo idratando, riparando e minimizzando il prurito dovuto alla psoriasi e all'eczema. Inoltre, dalla nostra esperienza nella cura postoperatoria e laser, abbiamo scoperto che l'applicazione di uno strato di siero di acido ialuronico puro prima di applicare la crema curativa e rigenerante o la crema ricostruttiva di Hymed aiuta a superidratare e fornisce l'ossigeno disciolto nell'acqua dell'acido ialuronico per riparazione continua della pelle della psoriasi. Il siero ialuronico puro è disponibile nell'idratante ialuronico di Hylunia o nell'acido ialuronico puro di Hymed.

La crema curativa e restitutiva di Hylunia e la crema ricostruttiva di Hymed hanno dato così tanto sollievo a così tanti clienti indifesi, che l'anno scorso la società ha formulato l'esclusiva crema ricostruttiva Hymed del medico in particolare per i pazienti affetti da psoriasi ed eczema e la renderà disponibile al pubblico. La nuova formulazione contiene calendula, beta-glucano di avena e curcuma oltre all'acido ialuronico. Di seguito sono riportate le informazioni sui benefici di calendula, beta-glucano e curcuma.

CONSERVANTI, FRAGRANZE E INGREDIENTI INFIAMMATORI

Qualsiasi prodotto per la cura della pelle usato per la psoriasi dovrebbe essere privo di sostanze irritanti come profumi e conservanti. Gli studi hanno dimostrato che fragranze e conservanti contribuiscono a oltre il 50% dell'irritazione della pelle e l'irritazione continua della pelle della psoriasi ferita può causare danni irreversibili. Hylunia e Hymed non usano conservanti e profumi artificiali ma usano una combinazione di non conservanti, minimizzando così l'irritazione e l'infiammazione. Pertanto, anche il detergente o il detergente per il corpo che usi dovrebbero essere privi di conservanti.

Hylunia ha un detergente per il corpo non profumato e privo di conservanti e Hymed ha un detergente delicato per la pulizia della pelle della psoriasi.

STRESS E SISTEMA IMMUNITARIO

Come tutti sappiamo, la psoriasi è una malattia autoimmune e il sistema immunitario si indebolisce a causa dello stress creato dalla tua autocoscienza, di come ti senti su di te e della peggiore risposta mentale dello scenario. Esistono terapie alternative per ridurre lo stress e riaffermare la mente per minimizzare lo stress. Ho detto a tutti quelli con cui lavoro che la chiave per ridurre lo stress sta nel “come guardi le cose”. Abbiamo un massaggio antistress e una meditazione guidata presso la Hylunia Wellness MD Spa di Orange County, in California, per aiutare le persone con psoriasi.

ABITUDINI ALIMENTARI

Anche se credo che tutti dovrebbero mangiare ciò che vivono, è consigliabile minimizzare il consumo di carne rossa e bianca ricca di ormoni e nutrita di antibiotici. Mangia tutto con moderazione e non ti chiedo di interrompere completamente tutto. Puoi ridurre la tua carne rossa e mangiare carne nutrita con erba, pollo ruspante, pesce e uova. Mangia e bevi biologico e includi insalate e verdure nei tuoi pasti. Il tuo corpo produce tossine e deve essere disintossicato. Bere latte dorato e includere la curcuma in tutti i tuoi alimenti e frullati può ridurre al minimo l'infiammazione a causa di stress e tossine nel tuo corpo. Inoltre, inclusi lo zenzero, l'aglio, il finocchio e il coriandolo durante la cottura possono aiutare a ridurre al minimo l'infiammazione.

La pelle della psoriasi necessita di una guarigione costante e la vitamina A è importante nella guarigione. Incluse le carotine nell'insalata e come spuntino e carote in cucina o bevendo succo di carota sono un'ottima fonte di vitamina A per curare la psoriasi. Inoltre, è bene assumere vitamina C 500 mg, 3 volte al giorno poiché fa bene al sistema immunitario e favorisce la sintesi del collagene.

Le fibre alimentari, sia le fibre solubili (come la farina d'avena) che le fibre insolubili sono importanti per il movimento intestinale, altrimenti la costipazione produce tossine che ostacolano la guarigione della pelle della psoriasi.

L'assunzione di psillio, semi di lino e semi di chia con succhi, frullati e tè può aiutare a rendere più fluidi i movimenti intestinali.

Se ti piacciono le alghe, mangia Spirulina per disintossicare il tuo corpo.

DISINTOSSICAZIONE.

L'ultima ma non meno importante sono le tossine prodotte nel tuo corpo. Le tossine sono prodotte nel tuo corpo come sottoprodotto del metabolismo e dai farmaci. Inoltre, le tossine si accumulano nel corpo al di fuori delle cellule, nel sangue, nella linfa, nell'intestino e nel fegato. La risposta del sistema immunitario è ridotta con tossine sopra il normale nel corpo. La disintossicazione del corpo è importante per coloro che soffrono di psoriasi, in particolare quelli che assumono steroidi e altri farmaci, nonché che usano lozioni e creme topiche. La disintossicazione tradizionale dalle erbe e dagli alimenti non rimuoverà completamente le tossine da tutte le cellule del corpo.

Hylunia ha sviluppato un sistema di disintossicazione ionico-cellulare completo e completo in grado di rimuovere completamente la maggior parte delle tossine testate negli ultimi 15 anni. Hylunia Wellness MD Spa offre servizi di disintossicazione e un programma di 21 giorni “Beyond Panchakarma” (5 passaggi di pulizia e ringiovanimento) per coloro che soffrono di psoriasi grave e altri allineamenti.

Informazioni sugli ingredienti.

Acido ialuronico (Hylunia e Hymed è un'azienda vegana e l'acido ialuronico utilizzato è derivato da fonti vegetali).

Studi clinici hanno dimostrato (Rif; 1 e 2) che le ferite irradiate guariscono più rapidamente con l'acido ialuronico. Trattenendo 1000 volte il suo peso in acqua, l'acido ialuronico lega efficacemente l'acqua alle cellule ed è responsabile dell'elasticità e della resistenza della pelle. Secondo il dott. Brian Jegasothy, MD, ex presidente del Dipartimento di Dermatologia dell'Università di Pittsburgh: “L'acido ialuronico è probabilmente gli umettanti topici più efficaci attualmente disponibili: più efficaci nelle sue proprietà di ritenzione idrica rispetto alla glicerina, sorbitolo, collagene ecc. Inoltre, la sua capacità di associarsi ai lipidi nelle membrane superficiali della pelle ne migliora notevolmente la capacità di erogare l'acqua trattenuta e ne arricchisce le proprietà riducendo la perdita di acqua transepidermica ”.

Dal 1988, Hylunia– Hymed ha lavorato sulle proprietà curative dell'acido ialuronico e ha basato l'intera linea di prodotti per la cura della pelle attorno alle comprovate proprietà curative e idratanti dell'acido ialuronico.

Rif. 1: Guarigione delle ferite arricchite con acido ialuronico: osservazione istologica.

G.Abatangelo; M. Martelli e P. Vecchia; Università di Padova, Italia

Rif. 2: Studio clinico randomizzato in doppio cieco che confronta la crema con acido ialuronico con il placebo in pazienti trattati con radioterapia

Radiother Oncol 1997 febbraio; 42 (2): 155061 (ISSN: 0167-8140). Liguori V; Guillemin C; Pesce GF; Mirimanoff R O; Bernier J. Dipartimento di Radio-Oncologia, Ospedale San Giovanni, Bellinzona, Svizzera.

calendola

La calendula, nota anche come calendula, viene utilizzata in Europa per secoli come rimedio erboristico noto per le sue proprietà antibatteriche e antinfiammatorie. L'estratto di calendula è ricco di beta-carotene, stearina, triterpenoidi, flavonoidi e cumarina, nonché di microelementi. Per questo motivo, Calendula è nota per le sue potenti proprietà cicatrizzanti e lenitive. Di solito è usato esternamente per le sue proprietà antisettiche e curative nel trattamento di infezioni della pelle, tagli, forature, graffi, ustioni e pelle screpolata o irritata. Meno comunemente, viene utilizzato internamente per curare le mucose infiammate e infette.

Beta Glucan

Il beta-glucano estratto da avena e altre fonti può comunicare con il sistema immunitario e può stimolare i macrofagi che ingeriscono e distruggono i patogeni. I macrofagi rilascia citochine che comunicano con altre cellule immunitarie. Inoltre, il beta glucano stimola i globuli bianchi a virus e tumori e rilascia sostanze chimiche per distruggerli. Il beta-glucano agisce anti-infiammatorio e anti-ossidante. Studi dell'Università di Alberta (Canada) hanno dimostrato che il beta-glucano può aiutare nella guarigione delle ferite e nella riduzione della paura.

Burro Di Karitè

Il burro di karitè è un emolliente naturale color avorio estratto dalla noce dell'albero di karité africano frantumando, bollendo e mescolando. È ampiamente usato nella cura della pelle come idratante.

I guaritori e le bellezze africane conoscono il burro di karité da migliaia di anni: la sostanza è quasi magica nei suoi effetti curativi su ustioni, condizioni della pelle, pelle ulcerata, smagliature e secchezza. Contiene un emolliente vegetale benefico che favorisce la rigenerazione e la circolazione delle cellule, rendendolo un meraviglioso guaritore e ringiovanente per la pelle problematica o invecchiata. Contiene anche protezioni solari naturali.

Il burro di karité viene talvolta chiamato “l'oro delle donne” perché l'estrazione del burro dalle noci dà lavoro e reddito a centinaia di migliaia di donne dei villaggi africani rurali. Hylunia- Hymed è una società del commercio equo e solidale e importa burro di karité dal Ghana.

Curcuma

La curcuma è una pianta erbacea perenne originaria dell'Asia meridionale ed è stata utilizzata in quella parte del mondo per migliaia di anni. La pasta di curcuma viene tradizionalmente utilizzata dalle donne nell'Asia meridionale come antimicrobico e anti-invecchiamento. La curcuma figura anche in modo prominente nelle cerimonie di abbellimento nuziale del subcontinente indiano. È anche usato nella formulazione di alcuni filtri solari.

I benefici della curcuma per la pelle

La curcuma è ben nota per le sue proprietà anti-invecchiamento, anti-infiammatorie, anti-ossidanti e antibatteriche ed è attualmente allo studio nella ricerca sul cancro. Questo bioprotettore neutralizza i radicali liberi e i danni delle radiazioni ultraviolette (UV). Il trattamento delicato della curcuma rimuove il tipico colore giallo, in modo che un'alta percentuale di curcuma possa essere incorporata nei nostri prodotti senza macchiare la pelle o comprometterne l'efficacia.

Sistema di conservazione di Hymed

La Crema ricostruttiva viene conservata con una combinazione di etilesilglicerina, glicole caprilico, estratto di Neem ed estratti di agrumi biologici.

Uno studio quinquennale sulle reazioni cosmetiche.

Adams RM, Maibach HI.

Durante 64 mesi (1977-1983), dodici dermatologi di varie sezioni degli Stati Uniti hanno studiato un totale di 713 pazienti con dermatite cosmetica su un totale stimato di 13.216 pazienti con dermatite da contatto. Il numero di pazienti osservati per tutte le cause durante questo periodo era 281.100. Una scoperta importante è stata che metà dei pazienti o dei medici non erano a conoscenza del fatto che un cosmetico fosse responsabile della loro dermatite. I prodotti per la cura della pelle, i preparati per capelli (compresi i colori) e il trucco per il viso sono stati responsabili della maggior parte delle reazioni. L'obiettivo più importante era l'identificazione dei principi causali. L'ottantasette percento dei soggetti ha avuto patch test. Fragranza, conservanti (quaternium-15, formaldeide, imidazolidinil urea e parabeni), p-fenilendiammina e gliceril monotioglicolato erano i sensibilizzatori allergici più frequentemente identificati, in questo ordine. Oltre ai dati clinici, lo studio ha consentito la valutazione della frequenza delle reazioni cosmetiche, sebbene i dati potrebbero non essere del tutto rappresentativi del paese in generale a causa degli interessi speciali dei dermatologi coinvolti.

PMID: 4078100 (PubMed – indicizzato per MEDLINE)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4078100

Psorilax:Guida |clobesol crema psoriasi prezzo

0

Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, originale

CUPERTINO Mar 7, 2020 (Thomson StreetEvents) — Edited Transcript of DURECT Corp earnings conference call or presentation Tuesday, March 3, 2020 at 9:30:00pm GMT

* James E. Brown

* Michael H. Arenberg

H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC, Research Division – MD of Equity Research & Senior Healthcare Analyst

B. Riley FBR, Inc., Research Division – Research Analyst

Greetings, and welcome to the DURECT Corporation Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year-End 2019 Earnings Conference call. (Operator Instructions) As a reminder, this conference is being recorded.

It is now my pleasure to introduce your host, Mike Arenberg, Chief Financial Officer. Thank you. You may begin.

Michael H. Arenberg, DURECT Corporation – CFO (2)

Good afternoon, and welcome to our fourth quarter 2019 earnings conference call. This is Mike Arenberg, Chief Financial Officer of DURECT Corporation. I will provide a brief review of our financial results; and then Jim Brown, our President and CEO, will provide an update on our programs. We will then open up the call for a question-and-answer session.

Before beginning, I would like to remind you of our safe harbor statement. During the course of this call, we may make forward-looking statements regarding DURECT’s products and development, expected product benefits, our development plans, future clinical trials or projected financial results. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that can cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statements. Further information regarding these and other risks can be found in our SEC filings, including our 10-K and 10-Qs under the heading Risk Factors.

Let me now turn to our financials. Total revenue in Q4 2019 was $10.7 million compared to $3.6 million in Q4 2018. Q4 2019 included $6.1 million recognized from deferred revenue associated with the Gilead license agreement. Adjusting for this, total revenue was $4.6 million in Q4 2019 versus $3.6 million in Q4 2018. Excluding the recognition of deferred revenue, collaborative revenue for Q4 2019 was up about $350,000 or 45% compared to Q4 2018. Product revenue, largely from the sale of ALZET pumps and LACTEL Polymers, was $3.4 million in Q4 2019 as compared to $2.9 million in Q4 2018. This 20% increase was driven by LACTEL Polymer sales. For the year as a whole, the product revenues from ALZET and LACTEL were $11.4 million as compared to $10.4 million in 2018. The gross margin for the combined product lines was 59% in Q4 2019. These product lines continue to be strongly cash flow positive.

R&D expense was $9.5 million in Q4 2019 as compared to $5.9 million in Q4 2018, primarily due to higher clinical trial expenses for DUR-928 as well as higher costs associated with POSIMIR to prepare for the advisory committee meeting. SG&A expenses were $3.8 million in Q4 2019 as compared to $3.5 million in Q4 2018. Our underlying burn rate during this quarter was $5.3 million, although it should be recognized that this benefited from $1.7 million in proceeds from option exercises. At December 31, 2019, we had cash and investments of $64.8 million compared to $34.5 million at December 31, 2018.

With that, thanks again for joining our call, and I will now turn the call over to Jim for an update on certain of our programs.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (3)

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Thank you, Mike, and hello, everyone. The fourth quarter of 2019 was a strong one for DURECT and capped off a very good year for the company. The following are highlights from the fourth quarter. Based on the impressive data from DUR-928 Phase IIa alcoholic hepatitis, or AH trial, the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease or AASLD, granted an oral late-breaking slot to present the trial results at their annual conference known commonly as the Liver Meeting. Dr. Tarek Hassanein, who is one of our principal investigators, presented the trial results, including impressive data on important endpoints like bilirubin, Lille and MELD scores. A large audience attended the presentation and the data were well received.

These study results were also honored with the inclusion in the Best of The Liver Meeting summary slide deck in the alcohol-related liver disease category. In addition, Dr. Craig McClain from the University of Louisville, presented a poster at the Liver Meeting showing the — that severe AH patients treated with DUR-928 in our study had significantly better outcomes as compared to similarly severe AH patients treated with corticosteroids in a contemporaneous study.

We also made good progress with enrollment in the 28-day NASH study in the fourth quarter, so much so that today, we announced that we have achieved the goal of the study by enrolling 60 patients. In fact, we will end up with more than 60 patients with the last patient scheduled to be dosed next week.

We also announced data from the psoriasis trial. And although the active did not outperform the placebo group. Interestingly, both groups showed significant improvement over baseline.

With regard to POSIMIR, based on our interactions with the FDA since our advisory committee meeting in January, we believe the FDA is actively conducting their review of our pending application.

And one last point, we ended the year with $64.8 million in cash, which is almost twice the cash with which we started the year.

All that being said, our primary focus remains on our epigenetic regulator program and the lead compound, DUR-928. DUR-928 is a naturally occurring first-in-class small molecule that plays an important regulatory role in the vital functions of lipid homeostasis, inflammation, cell survival and tissue regeneration. It may have broad applicability in acute organ injuries, such as alcoholic hepatitis and in chronic liver diseases such as NASH.

We are currently developing DUR-928 for alcoholic hepatitis by injection and for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH by oral dosing.

I’ll begin with an update on our alcoholic hepatitis program. AH represents a significant unmet medical need with no approved therapies. AH is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease or ALD, that’s associated with long-term heavy intake of alcohol and often occurs after a recent period of increased alcohol consumption. AH is typically characterized by a recent offset of jaundice and liver failure. And analysis of 77 studies published between 1971 and 2016, which included data from more than 8,000 patients, show that on average, the 1-month mortality from AH was 26%.

According to the most recent data provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, or AHRQ, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, there were over 117,000 hospitalizations for patients with AH in 2016. And a recent publication analyzing the mortality and costs associated with alcoholic hepatitis, estimated that the cost per patient was over $50,000 in the first year, and ALD is also one of the leading causes of liver transplants in the United States, which cost in excess of $800,000.

Last year, we completed a 19-patient Phase IIa open-label dose escalation clinical study evaluating the safety and pharmacokinetics of 30, 90 and 150-milligram doses of DUR-928 in patients with moderate and severe AH. This study used MELD to determine the AH severity in a multi-study — excuse me, a multi-center study conducted in the United States. In this trial, patients with moderate and severe AH were treated with 1 or 2 doses of intravenously administered DUR-928.

Study objectives included assessment of safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic signals, including liver chemistry, biomarkers and prognostic scores, such as Lille and MELD. The trial results were presented at a late-breaker — as a late-breaker in a podium presentation. Dr. Hassanein, one of the trial’s principal investigator presented the results.

In a separate poster presentation, Dr. McClain presented additional comparative data from the Phase IIa clinical trial of DUR-928 with a control group of severe AH patients treated with corticosteroids in a contemporary AH study conducted at the University of Louisville. This poster showed that Lille scores from this 8 severe AH patients treated with 30 and 90 milligrams of 928 were significantly lower than those from the 13 severe patients treated with corticosteroids.

Additionally, the DUR-928 AH results were selected for inclusion in the Best of The Liver Meeting 2019 summary slide deck, in the alcohol-related liver disease category. Inclusion in this slide deck is considered to be a singular honor and indicates the high level with which the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Review Committee regarded this research. All 19 patients treated with 928 in this trial, survived the 28-day follow-up period, and there were no drug-related serious adverse events. Patients treated with DUR-928 had a statistically significant reduction from baseline in bilirubin at Day 7 and 28 and a model of end-stage liver disease or MELD score at Day 28. Lille scores are used in clinical practice to help determine the responses and prognosis of AH patients after 7 days of treatment. The lower the Lille score, the better the prognosis or probability of survival for an AH patient. Patients with a Lille score below 0.45, have a 6-month survival rate of 85% as compared those with Lille scores above 0.45, who have a 6-month survival rate of only 25%.

When compared with historical control group consisting of 15 AH patients with similar severity of AH at the beginning of the study, from a contemporaneous University of Louisville AH trial, the DUR-928 treated patients had statistically significantly lower Lille scores. In 928 study, the mean Lille score for the 18 AH patients treated with 928 who returned for their 7-day visits was 0.10. These companies — excuse me, this compares to a median Lille score of 0.41 for the patients in the Louisville study.

Additionally, 89% of the 928-treated patients had a Lille score below 0.45 as compared to 53% of the Louisville patients. In addition to having statistically significant lower Lille scores than those from the well matched control group of patients from the contemporaneous Louisville study, the 928-treated patients also had statistically significant lower Lille scores as to compare to historically published control groups.

74% of all 928-treated patients and 67% of those with severe AH were discharged from the hospital within 4 days after receiving a single dose of 928. The patient population typically remains in the hospital, this type of patient population for an extended period of time. 928 was well tolerated in all patients at all doses treated and were now seriously related adverse events associated with any dose level. After being discharged on Day 2, 1 patient did not return for the scheduled Day 7 or Day 28 follow-up visits. Therefore, the Lille bilirubin and MELD data I just reported are based on 18 patients.

As stated earlier, all 19 patients treated with 928, including the one that did not return for the follow-up visits, survived the 28-day follow-up period. By contrast, 2 of the 15 patients from the Louisville historical control group died in the first month.

We are working with the FDA and our advisers to finalize the Phase IIb protocol. This Phase IIb trial will be a multi-center international randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in severe AH patients. We are planning to initiate the trial in the middle of this year. And based on our current working assumptions related to trial design, number of clinical sites and enrollment rates, we anticipate top line data from this trial in 2022.

The next program I’ll update is the 928 NASH program. Today, we announced that we had exceeded our 60-patient enrollment target for this multi-center U.S. NASH trial, with the final patient scheduled to be dosed next week. The trial is a Phase Ib randomized open-label clinical study evaluating the safety pharmacokinetics and biological activity of 928 in NASH patients with stage 1 to 3 fibrosis.

In this study, we’re evaluating 928 doses of 50 milligrams and 150 milligrams once a day and 300-milligram twice a day. Patients in the trial, take 928 orally for 28 consecutive days and are followed afterwards for 28 days. We’ve already enrolled approximately 20 patients per dose group, and we’ll end up with a few more than 60 patients after the final patients initiate their dosing next week.

Key endpoints for this study includes safety and pharmacokinetics, clinical chemistry and biomarkers as well as liver fat and stiffness by imaging. We remain on schedule to have all patients complete their dosing and follow-up visits in the first half of 2020 and expect to announce top line data in the middle of this year.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD is one of the most common forms of liver disease in both children and adults. It’s estimated that NAFLD affects about 30% to 40% of adults and about 10% of children in the United States. NASH, a more severe and progressive form of NAFLD, is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of 3% to 5% globally. No drug is currently approved for NAFLD or for NASH.

And now to our 928 psoriasis program. In January 2020, we announced the results from the Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. 22 patients completed the study, applying 928 topically to the plaque on one arm and the vehicle to a similar plaque in the other arm for 28 days. DUR-928 did not demonstrate a benefit over vehicle based on the Investigator’s Global Assessment, or IGA, which was the scoring system for the primary analysis or at in any of the secondary analyses. However, at the end of the 4-week application period, patients in both the 928 and vehicle treatment group experienced significant improvement over baseline in both IGA and Local Psoriasis Severity Index, or LPSI scores. The improvement was observed as soon as 1 week after dosing. In fact, 90% of the patients in both groups had at least a 1-point reduction in LPSI score after the 4-week daily application period.

Daily topical application of 928 was well tolerated with no meaningful differences in adverse events between the treatment and the vehicle groups. Based on the top line data, we do not plan to continue development of topical 928 in psoriasis at this time. And will focus our near-term development activities on AH and NASH.

Now to our legacy drug delivery business, beginning with POSIMIR. POSIMIR is an investigational postoperative pain relief depot product that utilizes our patented SABER technology. It is designed to be administered directly into the surgical site, to deliver bupivacaine for up to 3 days after surgery. A comprehensive review of the POSIMIR program in light of the issues raised by the FDA in our communications with them, including the Complete Response Letter, was prepared and submitted as a response to the Complete Response Letter. The FDA initially assigned a user goal fee date of December 27 last year, but then scheduled an advisory meeting for January 16 of this year. And a new user fee goal date has not been assigned.

In a split vote, 6 advisory committee members voted to recommend that the efficacy, safety and overall risk-benefit of profile of POSIMIR support approval, while 6 did not support approval based on the information presented. Although the FDA considers a recommendation of the advisory committee when they make a decision, the recommendation of the panel is not binding.

The effort to evaluate the program, develop the strategy for filing the response and prepare the response has been under the direction of Dr. Lee Simon, who was formerly the FDA’s Division Director of the Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Ophthalmologic Drug Products. Dr. Simon also led our preparation efforts for the advisory committee meeting. Subsequent to the advisory committee meeting, we continue to interact with the FDA as they continue their review.

As a reminder, in 2 adequate and well-controlled clinical trials conducted in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair and subacromial decompression or shoulder surgery, POSIMIR demonstrated a significant decrease in pain and opioids consumed over the 0- to 72-hour period following surgery as compared to placebo. We believe these trials support the safety and efficacy of POSIMIR in the postoperative pain and meet the requirements to be considered pivotal clinical trials. In all, the company has completed 16 clinical trials in the POSIMIR program involving over 1,400 patients with over 850 of who receive POSIMIR and the remainder are control groups.

Insufficient postoperative pain control remains a significant problem with studies indicating that approximately 65% of patients experience moderate to severe pain after surgery. New non-opioid pain products are much needed in the postoperative pain setting, and we believe that POSIMIR could be an important contributor, if approved. If approved, we would plan to license POSIMIR to a partner with excellent commercial capabilities. Given the potential value of POSIMIR, we believe the deal could garner significant economic terms.

Now to the Gilead deal. In July, we signed a license agreement with Gilead to develop and commercialize a long-acting injectable HIV investigational product, utilizing our SABER technology. We’ve received $35 million in upfront, milestone, with fees plus R&D funding since signing the deal. The product is currently being reformulated and will undergo additional preclinical development work.

The final product I’ll update on today is PERSERIS. Under our agreement with Indivior, we receive quarterly earnout payments based on a single-digit percentage of U.S. net sales for PERSERIS, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic. The product was launched at the end of February in 2019 by Indivior and has been — they’ve given guidance for this year of between $15 million to $25 million in sales. As it’s still early in the launch, we’ve received modest earnout payments so far.

In summary, data from the DUR-928 AH Phase IIa trial is compelling. And compared to historical data suggests that the drug may be life-saving for patients who have no good therapeutic options in a condition with a high mortality rate. The AASLD granted us an oral late-breaking slot to present the trial results at their annual conference known as The Liver Meeting. Dr. Hassanein, who is one of the principal investigators, presented the trial results including impressive data on important endpoints like bilirubin, Lille and MELD scores. The study results were also honored with the inclusion into the Best of The Liver Meeting summary slide deck in the alcohol-related liver disease category.

In addition, Dr. McClain from the University of Louisville, presented a poster at the liver meeting showing the severe AH patients treated with 928 in our study had significantly better outcomes as compared to similarly severe AH patients treated with corticosteroids in a contemporaneous study. We believe that DUR-928 has the potential to be lifesaving in AH patients, and we plan to start a Phase IIb placebo-controlled AH trial in the middle of this year. We announced today that we have already exceeded the 60-patient enrollment goal in our DUR-928 28-day NASH trial and remain on track to report data in the middle of this year.

Post the advisory committee meeting, we continue to interact with the FDA as they continue their review of POSIMIR. We look forward to potential approval of POSIMIR and a potential commercial partnership. Most of all, we’re looking forward to a DUR 928 may be able to do to help patients with devastating conditions, such as alcoholic hepatitis.

With that, we’d now like to take any questions that you may have.

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Questions and Answers

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Operator (1)

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(Operator Instructions) Our first question comes from Ellie Merle of Cantor Fitzgerald.

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Eliana Rachel Merle, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., Research Division – Research Analyst (2)

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Congrats on all the progress. Just in terms of this NASH study, can you talk a little bit more about what you’re hoping to see, particularly after the 1-month time point? Are there particular biomarkers that you’re most focused on as being predictive of activity? And then since you added the higher dose level versus the last Phase I fee, what’s your expectation for the dose relationship that you’ll see? And do you expect to see greater activity at the 300 mg BID dose?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (3)

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Sure. This is WeiQi Lin. I’ll answer the question from Elaine. So I think that for this NASH study, we will certainly look at all the clinical chemistry data as well as biomarkers. Remember that we did a Phase Ib single-dose trials in Australia, in several years earlier was in those patients, including cirrhotic patients. We saw some significant reductions following the single dose of bilirubin and also CK-18, both cleaved CK and a full-length CK-18 as well as a couple of inflammatory markers were down at 12 to 24 hours. So for this repeated dosing because it’s a daily oral dosing for 28 days, we’ll see what other markers are maybe CK-18s or other inflammatory markers, similarly, will be affected following repeating dosing. Of course, these patients are F1 to F3, they are not including as full patients as we get in the single dose. However, all the clinical chemistry and other — including ALT, AST and then bilirubin and biomarkers including CK-18, inflammatory markers like interleukins as well as the imaging data to look at the liver fat and its stiffness. So well, basically, it’s like casting the net, we’ll see how much we’ll influence — what kind of biological signals we are going to achieve following repeat daily dosing, even though it’s only 1 month. Then the study results can help us to design the next phase NASH trial.

With regard to the dose response, we don’t know. We’ll have to see. We did cast out a very wide dose range from 50 to 600 milligrams per day. So this wider range, following daily administration of the drug, we’ll have to see what markers are primarily moved by what those levels. So in other words, the daily dosing may be or may be not acting the same way as the single dose. That wouldn’t give us clue that what our next dose we all know for the NASH, it’s a long-term administration of the drug. So it’s not like an age trial with a single or 2 doses at most. So that after repeating dosing, what kind of markets were moved, and then what do we need a lower dose or do we need a higher dose in terms of for the NASH patient population. I hope that helps.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (4)

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Yes. I think that’s important to note. We did cast the net very wide, as WeiQi said, there’s a tenfold difference between the low and the high. And the concept behind that was to get a sense of where we’re going to go because we don’t know what dose to go forward with. So we’re going to be circling the lower end and exploring around there or the higher end, or did we find the bracket. And is there something in between. So that’s where we’re going to go.

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Operator (5)

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Our next question comes from Mayank Mamtani of FBR.

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Mayank Mamtani, B. Riley FBR, Inc., Research Division – Research Analyst (6)

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Very impressive data on AH indeed. Very quickly, can you dig a little deep based on your dialogue with the agency on some of these working assumptions. The time line seems a little — I was thinking more of 2021, but it seems like 2022. And like, could you maybe talk to the longer-term survival endpoint also, like what was your thinking there? Is it a 3 months versus 6 months? And what you’re hearing from KOLs around that?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (7)

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Yes. Yes, we’re working with KOLs, with a lot of them, actually, as you can imagine. But we had a team that was at the — there was a meeting that’s been — that had 2 of these meetings now. And the last one was in October of last year, and it was a meeting of the European and American Associations for the Study of Liver Disease. So it was AASLD, and it was EASL from Europe and the FDA. And these 3 groups got together, particularly around alcoholic liver disease, in general, and focusing a lot on alcoholic hepatitis because it’s such a horrific problem. There’s really no good answer out there. And so a lot of time was spent talking about endpoints and the like. And so coming away from that meeting, we believe the duration that we will be pursuing, in fact, the duration we’ve suggested in the trial, we’ll see what the feedback is at the end of it all, but it looks to be a 90-day follow-up for 90-day mortality. And we’ll be looking at Lille as well on prognostics side and then, obviously, all the other indicators in between, but that’s the thought. First, how long does it take to do the study. We’re basing our estimates now on what we can glean from what’s been done before. And there’s really not been a successful trial yet. It’s a trial done by Gilead, where they enrolled 100 patients. In 18 months, they follow them for 6 months, and they used, I think, more than 40 centers, something like that?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (8)

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50.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (9)

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50 centers. Yes. So we’re going to have a lot of centers. We’ll have centers in the U.S. and in the EU. Certainly, if we can conduct a trial more rapidly, we’ll and we do everything we can, but we’re trying to be realistic to the point, even maybe a little on the conservative side, say, in 2022, just to.

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (10)

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Yes, our trial will be certainly bigger than Gilead’s trial, but most likely we’ll enroll more patients than the Gilead trial. So I think 2 years is very reasonable.

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Mayank Mamtani, B. Riley FBR, Inc., Research Division – Research Analyst (11)

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Okay. Great. And then I had a follow-up on NASH. Is there any reference point you could guide to how to think about the ALD market, in particular, or even the liver fat when you think about the epigenetic modulator mechanism?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (12)

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Yes. I’ll let WeiQi further if she wants to add up behind me. As there haven’t been, as you know, because I know you follow the space very closely, there aren’t any really good biochemical markers. That’s why people use biopsy, right, to really define NASH. And so you collect everything you can and try to get — how to read the tealeaves as it were from all of the data coming from these patients. We will be gathering imaging data from MRI-PDFF for liver fat and FibroScan for stiffness at a month. That’s not something that’s typically done is people look at a month for these things. So if we see some changes, we’d be wonderfully excited to do to see that, but being more difficult to put that in relationship to others in most other — everyone else does 12-week, the longer studies. I don’t know, WeiQi, would you want to add to that?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (13)

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No, I think that’s correct. And then with a 4-week daily treatment, we’ll certainly look at all the markets change, of course, the tough target will be the PDFF, change liver fat content and stiffness change following treatment.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (14)

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Such a short time, yes.

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (15)

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Yes. But certainly, we’ll look at all of these markers.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (16)

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Yes, to see if we see any trends and give us — what we’re trying to do with this, remember, is we’re trying to scout out what range to be able to take to go forward into the next study.

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Mayank Mamtani, B. Riley FBR, Inc., Research Division – Research Analyst (17)

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Right. Okay. And the high dose and also learnings from the AH in acute injury model should definitely help to see some of that. Just one more on, if I may, on POSIMIR. When you say active review with the agency, would you be able to go into any more detail if it’s about labeling or if it’s about any other additional requirements? Any other color you might be able to give there, because obviously, the user goal date is not there to work with?

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Michael H. Arenberg, DURECT Corporation – CFO (18)

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Yes, Mayank, it’s — we can’t really give any more guidance about what the nature of the interactions have been. We just wanted to convey that there is activity going on because without the PDUFA date and after the Ad Comm, we just wanted people to be aware that there seems that the FDA is continuing their review actively. So that’s really all we can say, though.

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Mayank Mamtani, B. Riley FBR, Inc., Research Division – Research Analyst (19)

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Okay. And last thing with you, Mike, the spend, how to think about — obviously, NASH is a big swing factor, whether you do go ahead with a bigger study on the back half of the year. But just your runway. Are you not giving any guidance to where this takes you?

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Michael H. Arenberg, DURECT Corporation – CFO (20)

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Well, we don’t give guidance on future cash spend because there’s a lot of factors that we’ll be reviewing in real-time that will decide that. But our historical burn rate has pretty consistently been $6 million a quarter. It will probably go up a little bit this next year given the advancing stage of some of the trials we’re doing. So — but beyond that, I don’t want to give any specific numbers.

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Operator (21)

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Our next question comes from François Brisebois of Craig-Hallum.

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François Daniel Brisebois, Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC, Research Division – Senior Research Analyst (22)

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Just quickly here. Can you remind us a little bit what are the reasons were given maybe by Gilead for why they struggled in AH and why it might be different with you guys?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (23)

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Well, it’s really the mechanism of the drug is very different. We know 928 is an epigenetic regulator and there’s dysregulation in the liver in — for a number of diseases, but certainly for alcoholic hepatitis. And we know from some papers that have been published that — which part of the epigenome is dysregulated and we know 928 interacts there. And so can — there’s a good mechanistic reason for why. And then we have all the good animal data that suggests that. And the trial that Gilead did was that ASK1 inhibitor. So it really is just hitting 1 component. If you look at the multiple pathways in 928 associated with it would be 1 out of — I don’t even know, a dozen or so. And so it really probably didn’t have the breadth of reach to be able to do something for the patients. And certainly, the results from 928 reflect that outcome. I don’t know, WeiQi, would you add?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (24)

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Yes, that — actually, there is a very good publication just the recently came out in 2019. It was published by Argemi and others, bunches of authors, and then the lead author is Professor Bataller from the University of Pittsburgh. And then they actually studied the patient samples of some alcoholic hepatitis. They found that patients with alcoholic hepatitis, they have a lot of master regulators were dysregulated in the hepatocytes, and then which causes epigenetic dysregulation. So it’s a very good article and a very detailed study on what went wrong with the alcoholic hepatitis patients. So from that article, actually, one can take a look at it, why some drugs, if they have a singular target, may not work. And then — but then the drug with multiple targets and particularly acting at a very higher up level of master regulators might work well, which is the case of DUR-928.

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François Daniel Brisebois, Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC, Research Division – Senior Research Analyst (25)

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Excellent. That’s very helpful. And then lastly, why did you include — as we’re trying to figure out a little bit the NASH space and what F1, what F2 or F3 really is. And how to differentiate the different stages. Why did you include F1s in the repeat dose and why exclude F4, I guess?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (26)

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Yes. Well, we would have loved to include the F4. But in Australia, we were able to, but we hadn’t done the study in severely damaged patients, in F4 patients with 928 for the U.S., so they didn’t allow that. I can tell you in the interim, we’re doing that work now. And so we will be free to dose any patients going forward. But that was the reason why, and so we included the earlier stage patients, which if you think about the potential of 928, it’s not that it can’t — might be able to help these patients, but it really is, if you look at what’s doing in AH patients, it’s really a drug, I think, that’s — I’m looking forward to it being able to help the severely ill. I don’t know. WeiQi?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (27)

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So as FDA required before you go into the liver disease, the patients, so you have to go into the mild, moderate and severe hepatic impaired patients. So that’s how we actually did mild hepatic impaired patients at a time when we initiated the NASH study, we haven’t started moderate and severe hepatic impaired patients. Although, in our AH patients, we have a lot of severe hepatic function impaired patients. But then these are by injecting regardless, they reached the drug level reached a much higher plasma concentrations. However, because it’s different dose routes. So we still have to do the oral route administration in the moderate and the severe hepatic impaired patients before the agency would allow us to move into the F4 patients in the U.S.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (28)

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So last year, while we were finishing up the long-term talks to allow for unlimited dosing, at the same time, we’re doing this other work. So now, we’ll be in a position, post this 2018 NASH trial to be able to have the freedom to dose the patients that we’d like to and think we can help to the durations that makes sense of dose range, too. Sorry.

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François Daniel Brisebois, Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC, Research Division – Senior Research Analyst (29)

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Okay. And WeiQi, your answer is great. It’s very helpful for what to kind of expect, and when you’re looking at biomarker-wise for the repeat dose. But is there any chance — obviously, single dose, repeat dose, these are different trials. Is there any reason that it would be difficult to see a real read through between the data on the single dose and the repeat dose?

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WeiQi Lin, DURECT Corporation – EVP of Research & Development and Principal Scientist (30)

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Well, that’s — I think if you look at the DUR-928 because it’s a first-in-class epigenetic regulator so there is no similar to us like that previously. So the single dose and the multi dose, they could be different because the mechanism of action, because as they regulate at the epigenetic level and then working on the master regulator. So the repeat dosing and a single dose, they — sometimes these epigenetic regulators, they could have a long-lasting effect. And then depends on the disease state and then depends on individual patients, and then when you give repeat dosings, some — if some effects are long-lasting and then some effects are short lasting. So in other words, the single dose versus a repeat dosing can be different. So that’s why we have to look at — we are not saying, well, we won’t look at a single dose data. In fact, we’ll have to incorporate all the datas we achieved so far, including the AH patient data to consolidate and then get a sense of what a repeating dosing for the even longer term, longer than 1 month daily dosing will be like.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (31)

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Yes. I mean, there’ll be things that we’ll need to understand is, including dose regimen going forward. For AH witness that we’re dosing on Day 1 and then again, 3 days later. We’re not dosing every day because you get this — it’s really a master regulator, master switch changing. And so when you have that kind of thing occurring, these effects can last for a while. So to determine the frequency with which to modulate that switch is something that needs to be also understood as we go forward.

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Operator (32)

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(Operator Instructions) Our next question comes from Adam Walsh of Stifel.

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Xiaodong Zhang, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, Research Division – Associate (33)

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This is Edwin Zhang for Adam. I have a follow-up question on AH Phase IIb design. So what are your working assumptions on the total patient enrollment? How many patients are going to be enrolled? And how many drug arms in the trial? And also, do you have any change regarding the patient inclusion or exclusion criteria compared to the Phase IIa?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (34)

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Those are great questions. Yes, I’ll start with the last one first. Yes, in this trial, we’re not going to be including moderates. We’re looking to severe patients because these are the ones that really need our help. Not that the moderates don’t have or very ill and their livers aren’t severely damaged, but the severe ones are the ones where you can see — they have the greatest opportunity to see a difference. And so we’re going to be looking at patients with higher MELDs and on higher — what they call Maddrey discriminant function scores. And as far as the dose level is concerned, it will be the severe patients, I guess, that’s one quick answer. And then with regard to the dose groups right now, we’re looking at 30 milligram, a 90 milligram of 928 as compared to a placebo. And so those are the 3 arms that we’re looking for. Don’t have final numbers now. We’re estimating maybe 50 patients per group is what we’re thinking currently.

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Operator (35)

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Our next question comes from Ed Arce of H.C. Wainwright.

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Antonio Eduardo Arce, H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC, Research Division – MD of Equity Research & Senior Healthcare Analyst (36)

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Congrats on the recent progress with 928 in both AH and NASH. So some of my questions have been asked already, but I did want to ask a couple here. First, to confirm in the NASH study that you’re fully enrolled now. Could you remind us again, I didn’t quite get it earlier when you spoke about the range of doses? And how many of those doses, I think it went from 60 to 600 mg, but I just wanted to be sure.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (37)

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Yes, we — there are 3 different dose groups, and they’ll each have 20 patients per group, a couple of more because we’re — we’ve enrolled more than 60 by the time the trial was completed. But we’re looking at dosing, we have dosed to 50 milligrams once a day and 150 milligrams once a day and then 300 milligrams twice a day for a total daily dose in that last group of 600 milligrams. So the range is more than tenfold, daily exposure between the 50-milligram group, single dose and the 300 BID. So that’s the dose range.

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Antonio Eduardo Arce, H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC, Research Division – MD of Equity Research & Senior Healthcare Analyst (38)

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Okay, great. And then just turning to the design that you’re working on for the Phase IIb AH study later this year. I understand that there’s — you’re setting a precedent here, and you don’t really have much to go on, and it is a bigger trial than Gilead. But just thinking about the time line that may go into 2022 before we get a readout. Just wondering if there are any plans for any sort of an interim look or any sort of advanced looking to either safety or efficacy?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (39)

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Yes. We’ll certainly have safety, always be monitored. But as you start to look to have a peak at efficacy, you get into these Bayesian statistical analysis and all the rest, that kind of stuff, it becomes quite complex and can weaken the power of your study. And so it’s not something that we’re embracing right now. We’re looking to be more straight up and just to evaluate those 3 — those groups that I described earlier, in a head-to-head to head trial, basically. And that being said, we’ll have to see how the enrollment goes. I think we’re being realistic. I think WeiQi and the team are being realistic in their estimate right now. And if we get fortunate, maybe things happen more rapidly, but you can’t bank on it. I think we should just consider it is what it is. You have to remember the difference is. If the difference at the end of that, let’s say, it does take 2 years. But at the end of that, we’ll have — if it works as it has before in the other 19 patients will have a therapy that can be life-saving in a condition that affects more than 100 — more than 120,000 people this year. Hospital presentations every year for this disease state, that’s their quoted for that, very costly, $50,000 or more per, some end up going to liver transplant. So the cost on the health care system and the potential to save lives is dramatic. So the value we’ll have for the health care system, for the patients and for shareholders of Durect is dramatic. It’s absolutely — just dramatically different from where we are today, where we sit today on a value of the company and the prospects. So it’s 2 years. 2 years, always will go by, right? And at the end of that, we could be in a very different spot.

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Antonio Eduardo Arce, H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC, Research Division – MD of Equity Research & Senior Healthcare Analyst (40)

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And just to confirm, well, I think this is still to be seen, but there is the prospect at least that if the results are clearly positive as they were in the earlier 19 patient study, that this Phase IIb could pose the potential of being 1 of 2 confirmatory pivotal study.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (41)

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It might be enough by itself, if the data are good enough. It may be adequate for approval. That’s something that we’ll just have to see as we go forward. And what the data will dictate. If the data are as you just suggested, are as good as they — we have seen or close to that, then that would be, I would think, would hope would be enough to be able to get it out there to save lives because you’re talking about a lot of people dying every year that might not need to die if this drug were available today.

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Antonio Eduardo Arce, H.C. Wainwright & Co, LLC, Research Division – MD of Equity Research & Senior Healthcare Analyst (42)

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Yes. And then just one last follow-up for me, Jim. And that is on your release today, one of the milestones you mentioned with the new potential license and collaboration agreements. Could you just expand on that a little bit for us?

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (43)

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Yes. I really can’t expand beyond what the — we have these things that we call feasibility agreements that we always have as an underlying component where we have people in our drug delivery side of the business you’re working on. And occasionally, one of those things matures to the point where we put in place a development deal. This happened with Santen, with the ophthalmologic project happen with Gilead, with the HIV product, and it has happened with others over time. But we always get the difficult projects. And so they are — that’s why we don’t talk about every feasibility deals because for every half a dozen that we work on, maybe 1 goes forward, maybe for every 10, 1 goes forward. So they’re always difficult projects. And — but if you’re successful, it’s tremendously valuable for the health care system and the patients and ourselves and our partners, potentially.

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Operator (44)

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This concludes the question-and-answer session. I would like to turn the floor back over to the management team for closing comments.

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Michael H. Arenberg, DURECT Corporation – CFO (45)

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Thanks again, everyone, for joining. And we’re out of time. We’re excited about the progress we’re making and look forward to a great 2020.

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James E. Brown, DURECT Corporation – Co-Founder, CEO, President & Director (46)

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Thank you so much. Bye.

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Operator (47)

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This concludes today’s conference call. You may disconnect your lines. Thank you for participating, and have a pleasant day.

Psorilax:Acquista con carta di credito |crema per psoriasi eselfino

0

Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, quanto costa



Pubblicato Sab 4 feb 2012 10.54 di EmilyB

Ciao a tutti – Sono seduto qui con Sebco che affonda … Non ho davvero tempo in settimana per farlo correttamente – qualcun altro sta curando il loro cuoio capelluto questo fine settimana? X


22
Pubblicato Mer 8 feb 2012 23.55 di thisaintnoparty (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da thisaintnoparty)
Attualmente soffro di psoriasi su cuoio capelluto, orecchie, petto, viso, gomiti, braccia e gambe.

Ciao, uso T / Gel solo sotto la doccia come uno shampoo normale.
La mia psoriasi non è stata un problema per anni, ma gli esami del primo anno hanno reso il flare così grave! … Sperando che farà il trucco!


27
Pubblicato Mer 15 feb 2012 19.30 di Prisk (modificato mar 29 mar 2016 8.52 da Prisk)
Ho avuto la psoriasi da oltre 17 anni. Una volta sono stato coperto su oltre il 75% del mio corpo, ho provato molti trattamenti … e mi sono fermato tutto

quando la mia psoriasi è davvero grave, metto un po 'di olio d'oliva sul cuoio capelluto come una maschera che tengo tutto il giorno, ma devi essere sicuro che non dovrai uscire! 😉 E poi lo lavo via con T / Gel e soprattutto l'acqua più fredda che posso prendere perché l'acqua calda lo peggiora.


11
Pubblicato Dom 26 feb 2012 23.18pm di maymie (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da maymie)

Ciao!

Ho usato tutto ciò che puoi immaginare per provare a curare la mia psoriasi sul cuoio capelluto, dopo averlo avuto per tutta la vita.
Come indicato di seguito da PrisK, aggiungendo un po 'di olio normale, mi piace usare l'olio di mandorle, che aiuterà davvero ad ammorbidire la pelle. Tendo a indossarlo e lasciarlo durante la notte, quindi lo lavo via al mattino. Per quanto ridicolo possa sembrare, sono stato anche conosciuto per avvolgere la mia testa con pellicola trasparente una volta che l'olio è acceso, in modo che non si stacchi mentre dormo e mantiene tutto l'umidità!

Hai mai usato Capasal prima? È uno shampoo che puoi ottenere dal tuo medico.

ps. Se usi olio, potrebbero essere necessari due lavaggi per estrarre tutto l'olio!


31
Pubblicato Lun 5 Mar 2012 12.08pm di sueneil (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da sueneil)
25 anni

Ciao, ho scoperto che lavare i capelli in acqua fredda aiuta molto. Lo faccio ogni volta che mi lavo i capelli e utilizzo shampoo e balsamo normali. Non ce l'ho sul mio cuoio capelluto da circa un anno.


43
Pubblicato Gio 5 apr 2012 11.51 di jules47 (a cura di mar 22 set 2015 20:21 da jules47)
Ho gravi problemi di prurito a causa di P

Ho provato a immergere i capelli nell'aceto di sidro (non so perché a volte viene chiamato 'aceto di mele') per circa un'ora e lo trovo molto utile


41
Pubblicato Ven 27 apr 2012 14:00 di cathob (modificato mar 29 mar 2016 8.53 da Gummi)
Ho la psoriasi sul cuoio capelluto su braccia e gambe.

Ciao EmilyB Sono seduto qui con catrame di carbone in testa cercando di schiarirmi un po 'il cuoio capelluto in modo da poter farmi mettere in evidenza i capelli la settimana prossima.


51
Pubblicato Mar 1 maggio 2012 12.23pm di saintsfan (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da saintsfan)

Vecchia soluzione di cuoio capelluto calcipotriolo formulazione vecchio stile e ora a buon mercato?

Suggerimento rapido: usa un pettine per separare i capelli e assicurati che lo stiano effettivamente applicando alle lesioni piuttosto che finire per strofinarlo sui capelli.

Se le lesioni sono molto squamose potrebbe valere la pena chiedere al dottore qualcosa per rimuovere prima la scala e quindi applicare il trattamento. Un po 'faff, ma almeno i mezzi stanno massimizzando il trattamento effettivo.


122
Pubblicato Mer 2 maggio 2012 alle 21.44 di michaelswims (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da michaelswims)

La barra di cuoio capelluto all'olio di serpente e lo shampoo solido anti-fiocco di Lush hanno avuto un impatto notevole nei tre giorni in cui li ho usati.

Dovebet usato in precedenza ecc. Ma nessun miglioramento. Il mio cuoio capelluto era costantemente prurito e mia moglie poteva rintracciarmi lungo la scia della pelle intorno alla casa.

Anche il personale Lush è stato davvero disponibile e per niente “mio dio dov'è la tua campana”.

Finalmente non lavoro per Lush o sono in alcun modo affiliato a loro.

Aggiornerà progresso / regressione.

Saluti e buona fortuna

Michaelswims


41
Pubblicato Mer 23 maggio 2012 9.25 di sarahb (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da cazza99)
Sin dai primi anni dell'adolescenza a vari livelli, principalmente cuoio capelluto e schiena

Ciao emily

Uso lo stesso di michaelswims ed è un grande miglioramento rispetto a qualsiasi cosa mi sia mai stata prescritta, e ho avuto la psiorasi da vent'anni ormai (dio dice che mi fa sentire vecchio !!!) 🙂


31
Pubblicato Ven 6 lug 2012 20.06 di aimie555 (a cura di martedì 22 settembre 2015 ore 20.44 da dawnmaxine)
Ho sofferto di psoriasi negli ultimi 7 anni e sono stato trattato con trattamenti UVB e topici in un'unità di dermatologia. Ho una scala

Mi chiedo solo come funziona la saponetta e il costo di quanto ottenere e provare … Sono anche stufo di usare lo shampoo capasale e cosa sentirmi normale con lo shampoo normale … qualsiasi suggerimento verrebbe ricevuto con gratitudine: )

Grazie
Aimie


11
Pubblicato Ven 6 lug 2012 20.17 di everbluerabbit (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Angelwash)
Psoriasi del cuoio capelluto e squame in alcune parti del corpo

Ciao Aimee,

Ho comprato la barra del serpente da Lush ma non ne sono rimasto così colpito, è di circa £ 3. Ciò che mi ha colpito è un altro prodotto di Lush chiamato Hair Doctor per cuoio capelluto. l'ha usato circa 3 volte e può sentire la differenza, sembra che abbia smesso di diffondersi e il cuoio capelluto sembra più liscio. Prova di nuovo circa £ 3 a pentola: tienilo in frigo


12
Pubblicato Gio 2 ago 2012 14.07 di Johanne (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da HellieP)

Il composto di cocco è davvero buono ma disordinato


11
Pubblicato Sab 18 ago 2012 12.29pm di ciarao (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Cicini)
29 anni

Snap! Sono seduto qui con il mio shampoo etrivex in ammollo per alcuni minuti. Ho scoperto che usare uno shampoo privo di solfati aiuta davvero, una buona che ho trovato è la gamma nuda con gli stivali.


31
Pubblicato Mar 21 ago 2012 18:9 di The Flaky Fashionista (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Darcie)
Ho avuto la psoriasi negli ultimi 14 anni.

Ciao,
Ho avuto la psoriasi da 14 anni e l'ho avuto sul mio cuoio capelluto per tutto quel tempo. Ho provato tanti prodotti diversi, ma nulla ha funzionato. Poi 3 mesi fa, mi è stato consigliato lo shampoo e balsamo Jason Tea Tree Treatment. Sebbene non abbia cancellato la mia psoriasi, ha sicuramente fermato il desquamazione, il che è un grande risultato. È disponibile nella maggior parte dei negozi di salute, costa circa € 8 (£ 6?) E vale sicuramente la pena provarlo. Se sei interessato, di recente ho iniziato a fare un blog su tutto ciò che riguarda la psoriasi e la moda. http://theflakyfashionista.blogspot.com


21
Pubblicato Lun 27 ago 2012 9.47 di goodyuk (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da aonp44)
Ho avuto la psoriasi da quando avevo 8 anni. Ho una psoriasi a placche piuttosto grave e l'anno scorso ho sviluppato l'artrite psioritica – un paio di mesi

Uso un'applicazione del cuoio capelluto diprosalica, che è abbastanza brava a controllare lo sfaldamento e le placche. Devi ottenerlo su prescrizione dal tuo medico di famiglia. La cosa positiva di questa applicazione è che è proprio come l'acqua, un liquido limpido non grasso, e ha un odore simile alla vodka quando esce dalla bottiglia ma è inodore sul cuoio capelluto. Ha funzionato abbastanza bene per me e il vantaggio è che non è grasso.


52
Pubblicato Dom 9 set 2012 5am di JMDC (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da NanaFay)
Mi è stata diagnosticata la psoriasi cronica sul cuoio capelluto. Mi hanno dato una serie di steriodi attuali e sistemici da prendere e niente ha funzionato. Lo ero

Carissimi tutti coloro che hanno provato di tutto per sbarazzarsi della psoriasi del cuoio capelluto.

Mi è stato diagnosticato 1 anno fa ed è andato sempre peggio. Molto pruriginoso, molto molto desquamante e mi fa perdere i capelli. Ho una buona dieta senza fumo, alcol e cibo spazzatura, quindi ho studiato ulteriormente la dieta. Ho eliminato TUTTO ciò che era infiammatorio … Latticini, zucchero raffinato0, alimenti trasformati e salsa piccante. Ho aggiunto un sacco di frutta, verdura e tutti gli incontri e le uova naturali. Ho bevuto molta acqua e preso le mie multi vitamine e olio di pesce. Ha aiutato il 10% !!!! Molto frustrante … FINO A quando ho iniziato a prendere le capsule GINGER ogni giorno. Ne ho uno a colazione, a pranzo ea cena. Ha annientato la mia psoriasi E posso mangiare gli occasionali toast al burro ricoperti di salsa piccante 😉

Prendo anche olio di cannella e aglio ogni giorno. Insieme allo zenzero sono tutti ANTI-INFIAMMATORI.

Ci è voluta una settimana prima che la psoriasi sparisse.

BUONA FORTUNA e PER FAVORE scrivimi se hai domande.


21
Pubblicato Mer 7 nov 2012 0.53 di kazxxx85 (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Jane)
tutto il mio cuoio capelluto è coperto di psoriasi, ce l'ho anche su schiena, fianchi, stomaco, piedi e orecchie. NE SONO STUFO

Ciao, sono nuovo sul sito e leggere tutti i tuoi commenti qui mi ha fatto sentire un po 'più normale e non sono l'unica persona con questa condizione molto frustrante. Ho sofferto di psoriasi per oltre 10 anni e il peggio è sul mio cuoio capelluto. Sono andato avanti e indietro dai dottori e mi hanno sempre dato la stessa roba, persino un dottore mi ha detto di non fissare un appuntamento con loro perché non sanno cos'altro provare !!!. vado alla prima cosa lussureggiante al mattino e provate tutto ciò che è stato suggerito !!!!! quindi grazie!!!. Farò sapere a tutti come va.


31
Pubblicato Mer 21 Nov 2012 11.21 di amymou (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da driver2)
La psoriasi del cuoio capelluto è accesa e spenta da circa 12 anni ormai, è tornata con una vendetta quest'anno (stress?) E mi ha fatto impazzire da allora

Ciao, volevo solo fare eco alla raccomandazione per Snake Oil di Lush: mi ha quasi completamente chiarito il cuoio capelluto, il che mi ha fatto impazzire per mesi da quando una brutta fiammata si è verificata principalmente a causa dello stress che non si sarebbe spostato. Ho provato così tante lozioni e pozioni sia prescritte che naturali, ho cambiato dieta e nulla ha funzionato fino a quando non ho comprato un Lush bar basandomi sulla lettura qui! La prima volta che l'ho messo sul cuoio capelluto mi è sembrato quasi che emettesse immediatamente un grande sospiro di sollievo. Da allora non mi ha infastidito molto, solo un paio di cerotti piccoli e appena traballanti, niente come prima. La ragazza del negozio Lush mi ha detto che stavano chiudendo i bar 🙁 così ho fatto scorta, ma poi un altro negozio mi ha detto che non li avrebbero fermati, quindi chi lo sa …

Grazie per la punta re olio di serpente ragazzi!


11
Pubblicato Dom 25 Nov 2012 2.54pm di hopebramley (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Serena_08)
Ho avuto la psoriasi dal 1965, mia madre ce l'ha e mio figlio ce l'ha. Sono stato ricoverato in ospedale due volte. Tuttavia, non lo faccio a p

Come molti altri ho anche avuto un “attacco di panico” quando Polytar è diventato impossibile da trovare localmente. Ho iniziato a usare ciò che Polytar mi aveva lasciato, con molta parsimonia !!! Fortunatamente il mio cuoio capelluto non è poi così male, e E45 SHAMPOO sta facendo un ottimo lavoro.


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Pubblicato Gio 6 Dic 2012 15:44 di petlamb (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da gimp1966)

Sicuramente una di quelle cose “tutte diverse” che penso, dato che personalmente le barrette all'olio di serpente non hanno fatto nulla per me, ho provato di tutto – Tgel, formule dell'albero del tè, di ogni sorta … poi il documento ha prescritto Alphosyl (shampoo 2 in 1, anche se non Non credo alle affermazioni del condizionamento, i miei capelli si sentono molto ruvidi senza balsamo dopo questo!) che adoro e li mantengo lontani da ciò che è naturalmente. I miei dottori non sembrano disposti a prescriverlo adesso? Sembrano fissati nel darmi unguenti che non sono pratici per me.


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Pubblicato Mer 13 feb 2013 12.47pm di sallywally (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da blu)
Aveva la psoriasi da molti anni ma si stava diffondendo di recente,

Ciao a tutti, ho usato Diprosalic su prescrizione e t-gel per anni, ma recentemente il mio cuoio capelluto è peggiorato molto – molto rosso con enormi scaglie. Ho vagato tra i prodotti per capelli e bellezza di Sally per vedere se avevano una crema idratante per il cuoio capelluto. Hanno raccomandato shampoo e balsamo AVLON KERACARE per cute secca e pruriginosa e ha funzionato a meraviglia. È un prodotto antiforfora (ho già provato altri prodotti con risultati terribili). Lasciare entrambi i prodotti accesi per 5 minuti prima di risciacquare davvero bene. Ho anche comprato il glossificatore del cuoio capelluto (stesso marchio) che stavo applicando prima di andare a letto un paio di volte a settimana. Ho ancora lo strano piccolo fiocco ma il rossore è completamente scomparso. Un vero sollievo trovare un prodotto che è bello da usare e gentile anche sui miei capelli!


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Pubblicato Domenica 24 febbraio 2013 alle 20.15 di Michelle (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da jazaib28)
Psoriasi del cuoio capelluto per circa 10 anni a vari livelli.

Ciao a tutti,

Negli ultimi mesi, poiché la psoriasi sul mio cuoio capelluto è peggiorata, ho letto spesso vari forum e raccolto suggerimenti ma non me ne sono mai offerto nessuno. Ora che ho trovato qualcosa che funziona (finora!) Ho pensato che fosse tempo di unirmi alla discussione.

Ho avuto la psoriasi sul cuoio capelluto per circa 10 anni, a volte davvero male e a volte quasi inesistente, ma per qualche motivo è peggiorato sempre più negli ultimi sei mesi. Come molti altri, ho provato una varietà di cose, alcune delle quali hanno funzionato inizialmente e poi hanno smesso di funzionare, altre che non hanno funzionato affatto e altre che hanno peggiorato le cose. Ecco cosa ho provato:

Alphosyl


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Pubblicato Dom 24 feb 2013 20.17 di Michelle (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da jazaib28)
Psoriasi del cuoio capelluto per circa 10 anni a vari livelli.

(Pubblicato troppo presto!)

Alphosyl
Germolene
Savlon
Olio d'oliva
T-Gel
Ketroconozol
Olio di serpente di Lush
Sudocrem


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Pubblicato Dom 24 feb 2013 8.26pm di Michelle (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da jazaib28)
Psoriasi del cuoio capelluto per circa 10 anni a vari livelli.

(Pubblicato troppo presto!)

Alphosyl
Germolene
Savlon
Olio d'oliva
T-Gel
Ketroconozol
Olio di serpente di Lush
Soak & Float di Lush
Sudocrem
idrocortisone
Shampoo senza parabeni
Fermato usando il condizionatore
Usando solo il balsamo
Non asciugare con il phon
Asciugatura

Sono sicuro che probabilmente ce ne sono altri che non ricordo dalla cima della mia testa. Ero rimandato dal mio GP perché pensavo fosse disgustoso e non volevo che qualcuno mi guardasse in testa! Alla fine ho dovuto andare per un altro motivo e ho pensato di poterlo menzionare mentre ero lì. Innanzitutto, non mi ha trattato come se fossi disgustoso, il che è stato un vantaggio! In secondo luogo, mi ha prescritto unguento Sebco e mi ha detto di usarlo per 7 giorni consecutivi e poi una volta alla settimana dopo. Finora l'ho usato per 3 giorni e posso onestamente dire che non ricordo l'ultima volta che il mio cuoio capelluto si è sentito così bene.

Fortunatamente, il mio fidanzato non pensa che sia disgustoso e mi aiuta ad applicarlo. Lo mettiamo in sezioni (ogni volta che usa circa mezzo tubo, potrei usare troppo) e lo lasciamo per un'ora. Quindi lo risciacquiamo e laviamo i capelli con Johnson's Baby Shampoo e quindi usiamo Johnson's Baby Conditioner assicurandoci di massaggiarlo sul cuoio capelluto per idratarlo. Il mio fidanzato poi mi pettina i capelli quando è bagnato con un pettine nit (uno dei migliori acquisti che ho fatto) e poi lo asciugo in sezioni assicurandomi che si asciughi correttamente.

Come ho detto, potrebbe smettere di essere efficace in futuro, ma per ora sta davvero facendo la differenza e mi sento di nuovo un po 'più normale!


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Pubblicato Gio 28 feb 2013 15:40 di a (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da SubanaA)
psoriasi della peste dal 2008

Ho trovato buono l'acido diprosalico. Anche il gel Dovebet ha aiutato. Uso emulsiderm o olio d'oliva per immergere il cuoio capelluto e lavare con lo shampoo Capasal. La sorella dell'ospedale, che ha molta esperienza, ha raccomandato di immergere il cuoio capelluto nell'olio d'oliva durante la notte. Non riesco a dormire con un berretto di notte, ma vale la pena provare se puoi.


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Pubblicato Ven 8 Mar 2013 15:37 di pamela2 (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da christina.46)
L'ho avuto per la prima volta quando avevo circa 12 anni, ho smesso di andare in piscina e in qualsiasi sport che non potevo nascondere, che è più.

ho scoperto che il gel synalar ha funzionato bene, al momento sono chiaro nel mio cuoio capelluto (dita incrociate) e lo sono da un paio d'anni ….. Usavo anche lo shampoo al catrame di carbone ..


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Pubblicato Gio 28 mar 2013 16.33 di nickdoyle1 (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da mistyeyedtex)
cuoio capelluto, gambe, schiena, provato di tutto, nessuna cura.


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Pubblicato Mer 3 Apr 2013 21.36 di S73phl1oyd (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Susie)
Psoriasi del cuoio capelluto da oltre 10 anni.

Al momento ho 4 articoli su prescrizione medica. Gel Dobovet che elimina immediatamente tutti i fiocchi ma non riesco a usarlo tutti i giorni poiché devo lasciarlo acceso durante la notte e non sempre ho il tempo di lavarmi i capelli prima di lavorare al mattino. Uso anche lo shampoo Alphosal ogni volta che mi lavo i capelli ma questo sembra non fare nulla per essere onesti! Sto anche provando un unguento diprosalico che unge letteralmente i miei capelli fino al massimo, quindi ho rinunciato a quello. Finalmente ho sebco che come il Dobovet cancella immediatamente tutti i fiocchi ma l'aroma del catrame di carbone mi fa andare leggero! Ho preso a sopportare il prurito e il dolore fino a quando non posso usare il gel Dobovet che provo a vedere due volte alla settimana. Il che mi allevia per alcuni giorni. Proverò alcune delle cose suggerite di seguito tra cui il lussureggiante olio di serpente e vedrò come va!


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Pubblicato Gio 4 Apr 2013, 19:18 di Susie (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Chizzi)
Soffriva dall'età di 9 anni ormai 35 anni. Recentemente ha avuto un focolaio dappertutto a causa di un trasloco: 'o ((indotto da STRESS).

Ciao a tutti voi compagni che soffrite di psoriasi.
 ho avuto la psoriasi sul mio cuoio capelluto dall'età di 9 anni e ora (ehm) 35 puoi immaginare di aver provato più prodotti di quelli dei chimici locali!
Anche se dopo aver visitato il mio parrucchiere locale ha suggerito un TREMENDOUS prodotti di Aveda chiamato “Benefici del cuoio capelluto”. Prodotti completamente naturali con estratti vegetali e tutto quel jazz. Essendo un po 'scettico, pensavo che fossi sicuro !! …. ma l'ho provato per alcuni mesi e WOW che enorme differenza ha fatto! In 26 anni non ho mai cancellato completamente la mia psoriasi del cuoio capelluto e questo prodotto l'ha cancellato completamente. Il rovescio della medaglia è che è piuttosto costoso, ma questo non è un problema quando hai sofferto per così tanti anni più una bottiglia dura per molti mesi poiché hai solo bisogno di una piccola quantità. Acquistare online è più economico tramite il sito Web “Aveda”. Il GRANDE risultato è che non contiene catrame di carbone, quindi non devi camminare per annusare come un capanno creosoto !! Spero davvero che questo aiuti anche gli altri come ha fatto per me! Buona decalcificazione !! ; o) x


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Pubblicato Sab 13 apr 2013 10.22 di soxiegirl (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da mikejhughes69)
Ho la psoriasi da circa otto anni solo su piedi, gomiti e mani che sono stati tenuti sotto controllo da vari unguenti. A loro

Sto usando i prodotti di Nioxin che mi sono stati consigliati dal parrucchiere: shampoo, balsamo e trattamento del cuoio capelluto e puoi anche ottenere un booster se hai problemi con la caduta dei capelli. Questi prodotti possono essere utilizzati ogni volta che ti lavi i capelli e senza doverti sedere in attesa che il prodotto affondi. Sono libero da sei mesi. C'è un sito web per questo prodotto.


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Pubblicato Mer 8 maggio 2013 11.52 di LEEP (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da rosy88 )

Ciao, ho avuto la psoriasi nella regione inferiore del mio cuoio capelluto da quando avevo circa 10 anni (ora quasi 26). Nel corso degli anni, il mio medico mi ha prescritto molte cose che, a dire il vero, non hanno mai funzionato davvero e hanno sempre avuto un cattivo odore! Sono stato su Dovobet ora per circa 6 mesi, questa roba è davvero buona, la applico di notte e poi la lavo via al mattino e ogni volta che trovo abbastanza vicino elimina completamente le cellule della pelle in eccesso sulla zona interessata. Inoltre, non sono mai stato in grado di trovare qualcosa di saggio che possa aiutare, solo Dovobet ha mai fatto davvero qualcosa per aiutare, ma può essere acquistato solo tramite il tuo medico di famiglia.

Anche per quanto riguarda lo shampoo, un ottimo che ho usato è uno shampoo Tea Tree di Paul Mitchell, è molto buono ma come sempre abbastanza costoso!


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Pubblicato Lun 13 maggio 2013 21.30 di Tams1n (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da Moody06)
Mi è stata diagnosticata solo recentemente la psoriasi guttata. Mia figlia di 6 anni ha la psoriasi a placche – quindi abbiamo provato molto a diff

Sebco è l'unica cosa che sembra funzionare per mia figlia (6 anni con psoriasi a placche): l'abbiamo messa sui cerotti prima di andare a letto e ci laviamo i capelli al mattino. Ho guttate così tutta la mia testa mi fa impazzire! Mescolo l'olio di rosmarino con un nuovo shampoo disponibile presso M&S – Gorgeously Gentle Shampoo di Tara Smith – sembra funzionare per me. In bocca al lupo!


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Pubblicato Lun 20 maggio 2013 19.06 di bizabella (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da babyaardvark)
Eczema e psoriasi dalla nascita, sul cuoio capelluto e su altre aree.

Qualcun altro ha menzionato Capasal: odiavo l'odore, ma mi sono preso una pausa e lo adoro. Lo uso tutti i giorni da circa 6 mesi e ho notato un'enorme differenza nel mio cuoio capelluto – nessun vero accumulo di scala.
Purtroppo significa che il mio cuoio capelluto è tanto più traballante, quindi come tutti sanno qui – idratante durante la notte (il balsamo sulle punte durante la notte è un ulteriore vantaggio che trovo – rende i miei capelli così morbidi!) (E mantengo un pettine nitido nel caso di brutti fiocchi di cui ho bisogno per uscire. Non asciugare i capelli spesso aiuta anche)

Una domanda veloce – ho avuto una patch calva dalla mia psoriasi da circa 4 anni – Sono in grado di cambiare la mia separazione per coprirla, tuttavia la trovo restrittiva e mi rende autocosciente. Qualcuno ha qualche idea / è possibile che i miei capelli ricrescano?


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Pubblicato Sab 25 maggio 2013 11.35 di norgstar (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da ER)
geneticamente passato da mio nonno. Area interessata – piccole aree lievi su gambe e gomiti, viso. orribile, quando stressato dietro le orecchie, sc

Ciao, ho appena scoperto il gel 2% Ketoconazol Cinfa dalla Spagna.
Dopo aver sofferto e sofferto di psoriosi corporea per 10 anni, sono passato al cuoio capelluto e questa roba funziona molto meglio di Polytar (è andata in giro per tutti i negozi nel Regno Unito per trovarla nel panico senza rimanere una bottiglia), ma sono felice perché gli shampoo a base di catrame sono un po 'puzzolenti / densi e questo è rosa e che cola, quindi può entrare in tutti gli angoli del cuoio capelluto. Ha avuto risultati drammatici per me e l'ho usato solo una manciata di volte, ma il prurito è completamente diverso da Tgel ecc., che all'inizio funziona ma diventa immune. Anche economico a soli 2,60 euro per 100 ml. Quindi, se conosci qualcuno che va in vacanza quest'estate, è bene prendere una bottiglia in farmacia. Lo consiglio e comprerò di più.


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Pubblicato Gio 1 ago 2013 8.51am di wizmint (modificato ven 19 giu 2015 1.06 da markay411@yahoo.com)
Io stesso soffro di psoriasi del cuoio capelluto abbastanza grave. Ero coperto da quando ero più giovane, ma come sono cresciuto ora è solo sul mio

Non ho mai pubblicato nulla su uno di questi siti Web, ma sento di doverlo condividere con altri malati di cuoio capelluto. Dopo aver sofferto di psoriasi per 38 anni, il mio cuoio capelluto non è mai stato peggio. Ho provato ogni lozione sotto il sole dal mio medico di famiglia e il mio cuoio capelluto non è mai stato completamente cancellato. FINO A quando ho trovato il trattamento del cuoio capelluto Lush Superbalm. Ora potrei parlare troppo presto, ma l'ho usato ieri sera e oggi non ho ancora scale sul cuoio capelluto. Di solito me ne sono andato con alcuni. L'ho lavato via con lo shampoo solido Lush Trichomania (strano ma adorabile) e il balsamo è venuto via con un lavaggio. Non puzza e i prodotti sono realizzati con ingredienti naturali. Non era troppo disordinato da usare e l'ho lasciato sul cuoio capelluto solo per circa un'ora. Molto meno fastidio di qualsiasi trattamento che ho avuto dal medico di famiglia. Sento che è così facile da usare che potrei usarlo 2-3 volte a settimana. Utilizzare Sebco, Cocois ecc. È sempre stato un lavoro ingrato e ho sempre dovuto lasciarlo durante la notte, quindi alzarmi circa 2 ore prima per assicurarmi che fosse lavato via prima di andare al lavoro. Incrocio le dita ho trovato la soluzione perfetta.



Pubblicato Mer 14 ago 2013 9.53 di Skycat40
Ho avuto la psoriasi dal 2001. È peggiorato, ce l'ho dalla testa ai piedi e ovunque in mezzo ho iniziato ad avere affaticamento e problemi

L'ho usato mi aiuta anche con le orecchie a dare un nuovo significato alla frase rimanendo a fare i miei capelli lol !!


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Pubblicato Mer 14 ago 2013 12.48pm di vstable (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.54am da Raquelle)
Ho una grave psoriasi ai piedi e alle mani, oltre a toppe su polpacci e gomiti …. è sempre doloroso.

Ciao,

Mi sono appena iscritto, quindi abbastanza tardi arrivando a questo thread – ma ho usato lo shampoo Exorex un paio di anni fa, e questo mi ha sbarazzato della psoriasi del cuoio capelluto. La lozione si è sbarazzata anche di varie altre patch, ma purtroppo sono tornati con una vendetta ….. non il cuoio capelluto però.



Pubblicato Dom 18 ago 2013 14.44 di tessie27
6 mesi

Ciao

Ho sofferto di problemi al cuoio capelluto per circa sei mesi, con conseguente perdita di capelli davvero angosciante – davvero angosciante. Prima che fosse diagnosticato formalmente, lo stavo quasi controllando da solo con l'olio Seb Derm di Mama Nature, ma questo leniva e schiariva il cuoio capelluto ma la perdita dei capelli, sebbene più lenta, continuava. Alla fine mi è stato diagnosticato il ps e mi è stato prescritto il calcipotiolo dal dermatologo. In risposta alla domanda di Bizabella sulle chiazze calve, i miei capelli si sono ritirati ai lati della mia attaccatura (abbastanza sorprendentemente). Il derma mi ha detto che la prescrizione (steroide) avrebbe chiarito le scale rimanenti e incoraggiato la crescita. Questo è successo due mesi fa e ora ho piccoli ciuffi di crescita (circa un pollice) ai lati della frangia rimanente. Il mio parrucchiere mi ha anche detto di massaggiare, massaggiare, massaggiare, quindi ora scalda olio di semi neri, olio di zucca, olio di cactus e aglio, olio di mandorle dolci, cocco, jojoba, aloe vera e olio di rosmarino (!), A volte tutti insieme, a volte ne mescolo solo due o tre insieme o uso semplicemente l'olio di semi nero (dai supermercati asiatici – dove sono più economici degli stessi prodotti su ebay!) e mi massaggio la testa (in particolare i punti che erano calvi) e me ne vado tutta la notte. Lo faccio 2-3 volte a settimana …. e continuo a sperare che stia ottenendo qualcosa di giusto e che i ciuffi continuino a crescere!
Buona fortuna a tutti!


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Pubblicato Gio 5 set 2013 alle 21:37 di penguin45 (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.54am da brama)
Aree squamose su gomiti, viso e altre aree strane!
Soffrono di neuropatia periferica (diagnosticata)
Hanno anche articolazioni dolorose che possono o meno

Avendo sofferto di psoriasi per oltre 40 anni, in particolare su viso e cuoio capelluto, ma anche gomiti e altri luoghi a volte, ho iniziato a usare Alphosyl diversi anni fa con buoni risultati.
Non ha nemmeno un odore così forte come molti altri; Finisco comunque con uno shampoo rivitalizzante leggero che profuma di più!


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Pubblicato Lun 9 set 2013 9.55am di gia1978 (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.54am da Susan)
Diagnosi all'inizio del 2013 a 34 anni. Soffriva da metà 2012 (immondizia GP!). Su tutto il corpo. I trattamenti includono Dovobet, Dovonex, vari altri stero

Aiuto Dovonex!

Qualcuno può raccomandare uno shampoo che in realtà lava Dovonex dai capelli ?? Ho un incubo completo con esso dato che il Capasal o l'Alphosyl lo rendono entrambi come colla e lascia i capelli unti per giorni. L'ho lavato 9 volte e rimane lo stesso.

Qualsiasi aiuto sarebbe ricevuto con gratitudine! Grazie.



Pubblicato Sab 14 set 2013 11.08 di Suzanne
Mi è stato diagnosticato circa 7 anni fa, ho sviluppato la psoriasi alla fine degli anni '30.

Ciao, sono nuovo di questo sito, quindi mi dispiace se questo è giusto !! Di recente ho iniziato a usare dovonex per curare la mia psoriasi del cuoio capelluto e ho anche scoperto che i miei capelli erano unti. ho scoperto di mettere un po 'di shampoo (uso lo shampoo per bambini Johnsons) direttamente sui miei capelli asciutti prima di iniziare a lavarli, quindi mettere acqua sui capelli, quindi lavare con il mio gel T, impedendo che si ungano. Spero che questo sia di aiuto 🙂


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Pubblicato Sab 28 set 2013 13:18 di babsrose (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.55 di wispers63)
Ora 73, ho avuto la psoriasi da quando avevo sei anni. Da quando avevo 25 anni sono stato in grado di mantenerlo al minimo, ma la consapevolezza costante è la chiave per

Hallo era interessato a sapere di Sebco. Non l'ho mai provato. Ho avuto la psoriasi da quando avevo 6 anni ora 73. Dal 1965 circa sono stato relativamente chiaro a parte la strana patch testarda. Trovo che trattare il mio cuoio capelluto sia il più difficile. Attualmente uso Calcipotriol Scalp Solution e per le tozze croccanti tozze Calcipotriol Gel Dovobet, quest'ultimo grasso. Uso anche lo shampoo terapeutico capasale che è davvero buono. Tutti questi sono su prescrizione ripetuta. Questi trattamenti sono OK, è difficile farli ogni giorno se si ha una vita. Chi vuole fare shopping con i capelli grassi e non stirati. Quindi ero interessato a Sebco perché sembra che non debba essere inserito quotidianamente. Attendi commenti.


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Pubblicato Mar 1 ott 2013 23.01 di Chaochao (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.55 di simmons86)
Soffro di questa condizione da quasi 7 anni. Ho avuto ogni sorta di cuoio capelluto, viso, tutto il busto e le gambe. Ora ho mana

Ciao emily
Dovresti andare dal tuo medico di famiglia e prendere Dovobet in gel, che è così buono per pulire il cuoio capelluto p. Il mio GP lo ha prescritto ma a quanto pare è costoso, quindi non ti darebbero l'intera scatola. Solo una piccola bottiglia da 15 / 30ml, alcune farmacie non sono disponibili, ma l'ultima volta che l'ho riportato da Boots, quindi dovrebbe essere prontamente disponibile. Provalo e vedi.



Pubblicato Mar 15 ott 2013 16.46 di I suoi pennini
Placca in pieghe, cuoio capelluto ecc. Occasionalmente cattiva tra le gambe.

I consigli di Andy sul controllo della psoriasi:

Usa vaschette di emollienti con cui lavare su una flanella bianca umida: crema idratante, crema all'olio d'oliva e crema al cocco da 99p shop o Poundland.
Non strofinare troppo forte con l'asciugamano!
Evitare prodotti con coloranti o profumi.
Usa emollienti ogni giorno.
Prick capsule di vitamina E e strofinare.
Prova l'olio di germe di grano e strofinalo dentro.
Prova a infondere acqua di avena e cerastio organici con porridge con cui lavarti: mettili in una sacca di mussola organica di Baldwin's Herbalist London o di Neal's Yard Brighton o London.
Evitare i prodotti sbiancati con residui di diossina.
Evitare di graffiare la raccolta e la rasatura.
Esporre la pelle alla luce solare.
Prova Silkis 3 microgrammi / g unguento tubo da 100 g. Una vitamina D sintetica a base grassa?
Prova l'applicazione Trimovate molto sottile solo sull'area interessata.
Oppure, prova un'applicazione Dobovet molto sottile solo sulla zona interessata (potrebbe essere un trattamento forte). Il gel a base di paraffina ha sistemato i cerotti sollevati sul mio cuoio capelluto per un po ', con un solo trattamento! Il gel a base di paraffina non deve essere usato su pieghe della pelle, può essere la crema.
Eumovate potrebbe essere un trattamento forte che fa perdere troppa pelle e la assottiglia.
Indossa abiti larghi: boxer, pantaloni da montagna sottili ecc.
Indossare fibre naturali, se possibile.
Evita i letti sintetici.
Evitare sostanze chimiche deodoranti ascellari.
Usa lo shampoo per bambini di Johnson.
Usa il sapone Dove Extra Sensitive di 99p shop o Poundland.
Usa sapone puro.
Usare solo detersivi non bio.
Utilizzare il PVC blu Waitrose? Guanti per pelli sensibili.
Registra le cause delle epidemie.
Trova modi per ridurre lo stress e le preoccupazioni: musica, yoga, ceramica ecc. La bacca di Schisandra potrebbe aiutare a resistere alla fatica e allo stress.
Ridurre l'assunzione di alcol aiuta?
L'estratto di kelp (ricco di ferro) aiuta a ricrescere i capelli. Anche ortica.
Forse i trattamenti del cuoio capelluto del catrame di carbone possono essere cancerogeni?
L'olio essenziale di camomilla romana blu a volte funziona su Eczema: 3 gocce in 10 ml di olio di mandorle. Piantaggine!
Un'infusione di 1 cucchiaino di papavero californiano “Escholtzia californica” di notte aiuta come integratore di zinco. Prova anche Great Burdock.
Le carote biologiche aiutano le malattie della pelle.
Chiedi di essere indirizzato a un dermatologo.
Ottieni un trattamento con luce UV specializzata in Fototerapia?

Dovonex Cream (Dovonex 50micrograms / g cream) potrebbe essere più bello dei prodotti grassi?



Pubblicato Lun 28 ott 2013 11.49 di ErwinK
Ho la psoriasi sulle gambe, ma solo sotto le ginocchia.
Ne ho anche un po 'nella linea sottile della fronte.
E all'interno della mia mano destra

Ho vissuto nei Paesi Bassi per 40 anni dispari e il medico mi ha dato Daivonex. Questo è un fluido di Calpitriol, che dopo un po 'ha funzionato. Insieme all'uso di T / gel c'è un miglioramento significativo. Risciacquare lo shampoo T / gel con acqua più fredda aiuta a far uscire il “calore” dalla psoriasi.
Posso capire che in particolare le donne possono fare a meno dei trattamenti che richiedono tempo. Ma temo che questa inflizione abbia bisogno di cure e attenzioni. Mi dico di scegliere tra l'incredibile prurito della psoriasi o calmarlo con qualche TLC!


1
Pubblicato Sab 16 Nov 2013 14.40 di Emma (modificato ven 19 set 2014 0.57am da d77gough)

Sì ……. io uso l'idromolo. Parto per tutta la notte. Incubo da lavare. Quindi uso vari steroidi topici per tenere a bada le cose. Entro due giorni sono tornato al punto di partenza. Avrei voluto un trattamento che riuscissi a trovare che funzioni davvero. X



Posted Tue 19 Nov 2013 2.11pm di Ashby-Ally
Have had psoriasis for 53 years. It flares up in or after times of stress. Lesions bad in scalp, backs of legs and elbows. For no apparent r

Have been using Alphosyl shampoo for the last 30 years (then it came in a tube, and was like brown toothpaste – but it worked!) I buy mine over the counter at pharmacies or online, but I don't find it as effective as it was (it suffers from being “new & improved”) & my scalp is bad at the mo. Thought I might give the Lush stuff a try, but someone suggested it may be discontinued, would appreciate your thoughts and recommendations!



Posted Sat 23 Nov 2013 4.22pm di sabeel1d
Yes

I recommend ointment that has :-
Clobetasol propionate.
Salicylic acid. 
Methyl paraben.
Propyl paraben.
Ointment base. 
In 4 or 5 day you'll be fine. Ok thanks


4
Posted Sun 24 Nov 2013 2.46am di dina_ (edited Fri 19 Sep 2014 0.57am by staceyt.83)
I have been affected since i was 11 and it's been 6 years. Doctors believe it was due to heredity factor.

Hello everyone. I was just wondering if someone could just give any idea (anything at all) that helps in reducing psoriasis. Im 17 and im from malaysia, its extremely depressing because having this disease on my entire body and scalp is humiliating since im still in highschool and we all know how highschool is like. People often point out how flaky my skin is and always going all disgusted because they see my scalp and think i have dandruffs when really its just my psoriasis. Ive tried the UV light treatment and applied creams and such. But none ever seem to work very well. Is diet important? And well im currently sitting for my SPM which is a big exam here in Malaysia (probably something like IGSCE or -A-levels) so ive been pretty stressful. This affects my life A LOT because im a girl and the fact that im a teenager makes it worse. Im constantly depressed because of this and i honestly just dont have anyone to talk to because nobody understands how its like to have to wear clothes you dont like to cover up your skin to avoid being picked on and all. Im just really rrally derperate for help and i hope i can get it here :/



Posted Mon 16 Dec 2013 8.09pm di s33girl
I have it covering my scalp, eyes, ears, belly button, knees, feet, pubic region also on my bum which destroys my confidance and makes me a

Hi i use dead sea mineral shampoo which can be found in holland and barret shops. I have used most of the range from them as it really helps to live a more normal life also it means i dont waste any time sitting round doing treatments. Then i treat my hair once a week sometimes once a month to johnsons baby shampoo as regular shampoo is to harsh for my scalp.



Posted Thu 19 Dec 2013 11.35am di Fogo

The best answer to psoriasis on the scalp was proved by a dermatologist I saw last year. It involves my wife rubbing Dermol 600 into my scalp to soften the plaques. After an hour she uses a metal nit comb to scrape them off. Once the scalp is free of the plaques the special shampoos, such as Alphosyll, TGel, etc, van get to the skin. I treat the margins of the hairline with Dovobet Gel and it is quite effective.



Posted Tue 4 Feb 2014 7.38pm di Paulashacks
I have it and my daughter has it too

Hi. My psoriasis isn't too bad at the mo but sadly my daughter has inherited it. At first her scalp was thick with scale and I tried all medicated shampoos, greasy creams etc. finally found something that keeps it under control. Head and shoulders dry scalp conditioner massaged into wet hair in bath. Leave as long as poss – usually 10 to 15 mins. Remove scale with nit comb while conditioner still in. Rinse out and dry normally. Treat red areas with diprosalic lotion daily for a week then every other day then twice a week then once a week as it clears. I ovule be interested to hear if this works for anyone else – worth a try! Something I found used to work for me was rubbing dove soap into scalp, leaving again for as long as poss then rinsing and shampooing and conditioning as normal. Again worth a try!



Posted Sun 16 Feb 2014 7.03pm di londongreen
Since 2010, scalp psoriasis and nail psoriasis.

Was given a few things by several dermatologists in the USA and in the UK over the last 3/4 years.
A few months ago I was given Calcipotriol 50 micrograms/ml for the scalp, but did not work either.
Lately, a GP gave me Dovobet gel, it's Calcipotriol + betamethasone: was told to do twice a day for 2 weeks, then once a day for 2 weeks, then once every other day. Actually I did twice a day for 4 days, and it already worked very well so I moved to once a day for 10 days, and now just moving to once every other day. Works well for me: redness is gone, flakes are gone too. Issue left is for my nails…



Posted Mon 24 Feb 2014 7.58pm di Kellymichelle
I developed guttate psoriasis three years ago which started in my hair. I think my experience may be of help. I used Dovobet gell for many

Hi, I'm a new member so apologies if you have tried this with no success however I have used dovobet gell for a couple of years on my scalp but the plaques always came back worse and hair fell out. I decided to give up steroids and try straight coconut oil, I rubbed a lot in and left overnight. I did this twice a week for several months. My scalp has been clear for a few months now. Worth a try and leaves hair lovely.



Posted Fri 7 Mar 2014 6.47pm di ricalt
On my head since a child mostly as dandruff (bad) over the years
Has got a lot worse last couple of years (large flakes) since not being abl

I have suffered scalp psoriasis for seventy years mostly heavy dandruff in earlier years and have used Polytar shampoo for years.Suddenly not on the shelves any more. I used various other shampoos to no avail and began to get very large flakes on my scalp.It seemed to me to be much like cradle cap in children so I started to use cradle cap cream and shampoo. This for me keeps the condition under control touch wood!! I hope this is helpfull.



Posted Sat 8 Mar 2014 11.18pm di MrsC_88

Hi EmilyB, I suffer with psoriasis on my scalp too and have tried most scalp treatments out there. My hairdresser suggested I try 'big' shampoo from lush cosmetics. I can honestly say it has helped a lot! It's a sea salt shampoo and after the first couple washes I could notice a different! Hope this helps xx



Posted Sat 8 Mar 2014 11.19pm di MrsC_88

Hi EmilyB, I suffer with psoriasis on my scalp too and have tried most scalp treatments out there. My hairdresser suggested I try 'big' shampoo from lush cosmetics. I can honestly say it has helped a lot! It's a sea salt shampoo and after the first couple washes I could notice a different! Hope this helps xx



Posted Fri 21 Mar 2014 2.34am di mandysimpkins
car accidents

I suffered from psoriasis too, but I was cured now. It was bad, and makes me very unhappy. I live in China. Here we use Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat skin problems, I went to many hospitals like this and tried many different treatments, but the effect is not very good until I went to a hospital in the North of China. It works, and now I am a happy person again, I am glad to share this with you, you may not able to go there, but you can talk to their doctors for advice. you can find more information on the website of vitiligotcm.



Posted Fri 21 Mar 2014 2.34am di mandysimpkins
car accidents

I suffered from psoriasis too, but I was cured now. It was bad, and makes me very unhappy. I live in China. Here we use Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat skin problems, I went to many hospitals like this and tried many different treatments, but the effect is not very good until I went to a hospital in the North of China. It works, and now I am a happy person again, I am glad to share this with you, you may not able to go there, but you can talk to their doctors for advice. you can find more information on the website of vitiligotcm.



Posted Sun 23 Mar 2014 12.51pm di TRNW2
I have suffered it for eight years now and have real difficulties in trying to improve.

Hi everyone,
Have suffered with psoriasis for eight years now. Have it on my scalp, armpits, groin area, knees, shins,elbows and behind ears. I use carpasal, trimovate, betamethasone scalp application 0.1%, diprosalic 0.05% ointment and synalar gel. In terms of the scalp psoriasis, cannot wear black and had to vaccum my bed every other day to remove scales after I have slept. I am now using stuff from Lush: Hair Doctor, Soak & Float Shampoo bar and Superbalm (Lush do not do Snake Oil anymore) and have seen a marked difference. Scalp does feel smoother and flakes are not as bad or as “snowy”. I have also started to wash my hair in as cooler water as I can take and that does appear to be helping too.



Posted Mon 24 Mar 2014 12.38pm di Jordan
All my life various problems with inverse and scalp psoriasis. Took years to be properly diagnosed. Suffering now mostly from scalp and hair

Could someone point to where to find Lush products? I looked up and couldn't tell if I had a different site named Lush – couldn't see the products people were talking about. Is this USA or British product? From elsewhere? Grazie. New to this forum.



Posted Mon 31 Mar 2014 4.37am di mandysimpkins
car accidents

I suffered from psoriasis too, but I was cured now. It was bad, and makes me very unhappy. I live in China. Here we use Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat skin problems, I went to many hospitals like this and tried many different treatments, but the effect is not very good until I went to a hospital in the North of China. It works, and now I am a happy person again, I am glad to share this with you, you may not able to go there, but you can talk to their doctors for advice. you can find more information on the website of vitiligotcm.



Posted Tue 1 Apr 2014 3.27pm di Stevie_mac69
I have it all over my body in patches but mainly on my legs.

Hi, I use Dermovate scalp solution and it works great and it has an easy to apply nozzle.



Posted Thu 10 Apr 2014 10.53am di joreilly
have had increasingly large patches since I was 12, it has steadily gotten worse and I am now 48

Hi Emily, this is the first time I have visited Psoriasis Association chat and I am SOOOO relieved that I am not the only one with these problems! Grazie! Not only did you make me smile (i can see you sitting with the smelly stuff on your scalp, my husband must be a saint because he never complains, although the cats do…) but you made me feel normal. take care x



Posted Fri 11 Apr 2014 2.59pm di ickleedlin@yahoo.com
Since 16, I am now 38. Mostly on my trunk, medium severity.

Hi, I had scalp psoriasis very badly 8 years ago and I changed my diet to exclude anything with chilli, red/green peppers and tomato purée in and it drastically calmed it down, within days! I only now have it on my chest – still looking for a remedy for this. M.



Posted Sat 19 Apr 2014 11.36am di kaz_ham
I suffer mainly with psoriasis on my scalp at all times however I get patches on my body occasionally too, near elbows etc. It flares up in

I suffer with scalp psoriasis and the only shampoo I have found to work wonders is Selsun. It doesn't smell the best, however after using it 2-3 times in a row it completely clears mine up and I only need to re – use it to control my condition once every 2 weeks. I also tend to laver it in to my scalp leaving the roots if possible and then once it's washed out i use a normal shampoo just on the roots – that's completely my own preference but it helps with my insecurities if I have to go out after use and taming the clinical smell of my hair. *I'm also aware most people would not be able to smell it in my hair anyway but I can if I sniff my hair 🙂

However I am 3 months pregnant and selsun is dangerous to the unborn child therefore my head has become unbearable recently – does any one have any advice on something safe to use during pregnancy? Thanks in advance. Karen .



Posted Tue 27 May 2014 1.33pm di susan191052
Calves elbows 7 scalp particularly affected



Posted Tue 27 May 2014 1.42pm di susan191052
Calves elbows 7 scalp particularly affected

I normally treat my scalp like the local deem sept at our hospital taught me. I use Dermal 600 bath emollient applied using those pointy sauce dispensing bottles that chefs use to dribble sauces onto plates (Lakeland sells them). that gets it right down into the scalp area. I then massage it inane put on a plastic shower cap and hope nobody knocks on the door!! I find an hour is the minimum to leave it on but I prefer to leave it overnight. Then I take a metal nit comb and remove as much scale as possible – the Nitty Gritty Nitfree Comb has rounded teeth and doesn't hurt when lifting scale. I tried Sebco instead of Dermol 600 on Friday and it was not as good imho.



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 5.29am di Deejay
Hello,im deejay 32 and have had it since i was in college years,i get it on my scalp, back and legs,have tryed many treatments but the effec

Hi Dina,

I'm from asia too and i can recommend the medicine that im using now. you can reach me at my email add deejay.perez272gmail.com

Cheers!!!



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 5.33am di Deejay
Hello,im deejay 32 and have had it since i was in college years,i get it on my scalp, back and legs,have tryed many treatments but the effec

Hi Dina,

Im from asia too and i can recommend my medicine that im using now. you can reach me at my email add deejay.perez27@gmail.com

Cheers!!!



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 3.25pm di Pumpkinpie1985
I have it on my scalp in my ears.

I've just been reading all the comments and was going to try the snake oil scalp bar and anti flake solid shampoo someone recommended. I contacted lush and they don't have any. Any suggestions as to how I can get my hands on some of this ??



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 5.05pm di karaallum69
I have scalp psoriasis:(

Im now applying this Emily, (2014) please tell me if this helped you at all?



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 9.25pm di briancromack
Hands, feet, legs, elbows, scalp, back, psoriatic arthritis

Hi, speak to your GP and see if they will prescribe Etrivex (steroid shampoo) – after 20+ years of scalp psoriasis this is the only thing that has really worked (usual steroid precautions apply).

Saluti,

Brian



Posted Wed 28 May 2014 9.25pm di briancromack
Hands, feet, legs, elbows, scalp, back, psoriatic arthritis

Hi, speak to your GP and see if they will prescribe Etrivex (steroid shampoo) – after 20+ years of scalp psoriasis this is the only thing that has really worked (usual steroid precautions apply).

Saluti,

Brian



Posted Mon 23 Jun 2014 6.51pm di Twibber
Scalp psoriasis

I have been using capasal shampooing coal tar but have developed a sensitivity to sunlight which can be caused by coal tar. Does anyone know whether the sun sensitivity (I get a rash where the light falls) will disappear once I stop use or whether once triggered, the sensitivity is permanent?



Posted Wed 20 Aug 2014 3.37pm di Pumpkinpie1985
I have it on my scalp in my ears.

I suffer from terrible scalp psoriasis and today I have discovered neem!! Shampoo,oil and cream it's amazing you all have to try it. Xx



Posted Thu 25 Sep 2014 1.12am di EnverAnkay
I have plague psoriasis all around my body including my feet, hands, arms, back, legs, stomach, chest, neck, face and scalp. It has caused m

Hey, I have found that rubbing Coconut oil in my hair and scalp and then wrapping my head with cling film for about 3-5 hours has really had a positive affect on me. When you have finished, wash it out using T/Gel shampoo and rub gently with a tower till your hair is damp. Once this has been done you could spray your hair with organic Olive Oil hair spray to moisturise you scalp throughout the day. Hope this helped



Posted Sun 26 Oct 2014 10.27pm di tonye
ovunque

I have had Psoriasis for decades. In the last ten years it has really affected my scalp – moving from a small patch to cover about 80% of my head. I will tell you about the treatment I have used finally to get it back under some sort of control.

Steroids cannot be used long term and become ineffective. You need to get your doctor to prescribe you two different prescription treatments and then to augment these with two newish over the counter treatments that actually seem to help get on top of the problem.

The two prescription treatments I have been using are:
betnovate scalp application (steroid liquid in a bottle) and
calcipotriol scalp appliacation (vitamin D liquid in a bottle).

The two over the counter treatments are:
1) Eucerin dermo capilliare calming urea shampoo and:
2) Eucerin DERMO CAPILLAIRE Calming Urea Scalp Treatment 100ml leave on lotion.

Not easy to find these in local shops but Boots sell the two products more cheaply online. The hospital dermatology nurse told me about them.

I treated my scalp with the usual Capasal for a week and then put on the betnovate scalp application nightly for around five days. This has some impact but the patches come back quickly after 20 hrs.

I then switched to using only the Eucerin shampoo instead of Capasal. After washing with Eucerin shampoo I applied the Eucerin leave on calming treatment, waited twenty minutes and then put on the calciptriol solution. You have to use the Eucerin quite liberally but the applicator is good and a little goes a long way.

I used the combination of calcipotriol and Eucerin in this way for 5 days or so and then substituted the betnovate for the calcipotriol for a couple of days. Then back to the calcipotriol for another five days or so. Use the Eucerin shampoo and calming treatment daily.

You have to give it about 10 days and things really did seem to change for me. You have to keep using regularly but for me its actually been clearing my skin.

The Eucerin products work well to help reduce flaking and itching if you apply then enough and daily.

This is the best fix I have found having tried everything available over the last few decades and having virtually lost hope…

Hope these work for others…



Posted Sun 26 Oct 2014 10.27pm di tonye
ovunque

I have had Psoriasis for decades. In the last ten years it has really affected my scalp – moving from a small patch to cover about 80% of my head. I will tell you about the treatment I have used finally to get it back under some sort of control.

Steroids cannot be used long term and become ineffective. You need to get your doctor to prescribe you two different prescription treatments and then to augment these with two newish over the counter treatments that actually seem to help get on top of the problem.

The two prescription treatments I have been using are:
betnovate scalp application (steroid liquid in a bottle) and
calcipotriol scalp appliacation (vitamin D liquid in a bottle).

The two over the counter treatments are:
1) Eucerin dermo capilliare calming urea shampoo and:
2) Eucerin DERMO CAPILLAIRE Calming Urea Scalp Treatment 100ml leave on lotion.

Not easy to find these in local shops but Boots sell the two products more cheaply online. The hospital dermatology nurse told me about them.

I treated my scalp with the usual Capasal for a week and then put on the betnovate scalp application nightly for around five days. This has some impact but the patches come back quickly after 20 hrs.

I then switched to using only the Eucerin shampoo instead of Capasal. After washing with Eucerin shampoo I applied the Eucerin leave on calming treatment, waited twenty minutes and then put on the calciptriol solution. You have to use the Eucerin quite liberally but the applicator is good and a little goes a long way.

I used the combination of calcipotriol and Eucerin in this way for 5 days or so and then substituted the betnovate for the calcipotriol for a couple of days. Then back to the calcipotriol for another five days or so. Use the Eucerin shampoo and calming treatment daily.

You have to give it about 10 days and things really did seem to change for me. You have to keep using regularly but for me its actually been clearing my skin.

The Eucerin products work well to help reduce flaking and itching if you apply then enough and daily.

This is the best fix I have found having tried everything available over the last few decades and having virtually lost hope…

Hope these work for others…



Posted Wed 29 Oct 2014 12.53pm di Jo
Lower back, head and smaller patches on tummy….Started getting it when my Mum died in 1998.

I use pure coconut oil…Its hard like lard, so I melt it slightly and rub into my scalp and leave it on as long as possible. Give your hair a good was after with t-gel or similer and it really helps and clears the psoriasis.
You can buy coconut oil in most places, including Holland & Barrett……Hope this helps.



Posted Wed 12 Nov 2014 2.09pm di shilpadaniel
i hav had psoriasis scalp since 10 yrs

hi everyone…. i am in India… i have had this psoriasis scalp problem since long… more than 10years… it had gone completely in between.. but then i had discontinued my shampoo and treatment.. now it is so itchy and scales are so flaky. Can someone tell me what should i use topically and orally??? how can i order??



Posted Thu 18 Dec 2014 5.37pm di squiggles72
I have had psoriasis since I was 13 years old. In recent years it has affected my scalp badly. I have it on my elbows, the bottom of my back

Hi everyone. I have just purchased Alphosyl from Amazon and after using for 3 days running my scalp is almost clear and minimal itching! I was really desperate as nothing was working including strong steroid Dovobet stuff from the GP. I was apprehensive about this as nothing was working but the reviews were encouraging so I bought some. I put Lush Superbalm scalp therapy on at night before bed and washed out with Alphosyl next morning. Two washes left on for five minutes each time and the results are encouraging. I'll drop down to using less next week, probably every couple of days to see what happens. I really hope it continues to improve, it's such an embarrassing condition. Now I have to find something for my elbows!!! I'll report back soon, hopefully with good news re the scalp situation.



Posted Thu 15 Jan 2015 5.34pm di JediJedi
Yes

Ciao,

 I have a pure herbal remedy that has worked for me and lots of others. It works 100% for most people. Its in pure herbal form without chemicals and you will see results within three days….

 Where are you located? I can send you a sample. Send email to info@jedijedi.com



Posted Sat 24 Jan 2015 5.26am di gazman
I have had psoriasis on my knees,elbows and scalp for 40 years.

HI ,after having p on my elbows,knees and scalp for 40 years,I found out how to manage mine.I wash my hair with an anti dandruff shampoo(makes sense) and then massage this onto my knees etc with a soft scrubbing brush for a couple of minutes. Then while watching tv, I apply a body lotion with shea butter and jojoba oil.This dries out after a while.I do this 2-3 nights in a row.Seems to control it for several weeks and now its almost gone.



Posted Tue 10 Feb 2015 5.30pm di Swirlgirl
I've had psoriasis since I was nine, I'm now 54. This has affected every aspect of my life. It's affected my career and relationship choic

The thing is with scalp psoriasis, don t over shampoo. The scalp will produce natural oils. I find that I have developed a routine of shampooing once a week , I only have flair ups when I colour my hair. I believe soap and detergents aggravate
Psoriasis in general.



Posted Mon 2 Mar 2015 4.26pm di Boogie
I have had psoriasis all my life, since I was seven. I deal with it well, but my scalp is getting me down at the moment 🙁

Hello, I am new here. I have had psoriasis since I was seven and deal with it quite well.

But my scalp is getting me down at the moment, ever since Polytar became unavailable it has got worse and worse, so much so I no longer go to the hairdresser.

It's my son's wedding in June and I desperately want to get on top of it before then.

I have tried Capasal – it calms it a bit, but the scales are really bad and all over my head. I need de-scaling!



Posted Thu 7 May 2015 9.41am di dca860
Confidence, hot holiday inhibitions, intimate contact, constant questions & humiliation (probably unintended – but nonetheless)

I have looked through this 3 year old thread and no-one has mentioned Synalar Gel. It is a water based application that is really effective (works well on any thin skin – facial and inner ear too).
As always, everyone is different but my condition is as bad as it gets, and this works for me so here's hoping this helps someone.



Posted Tue 12 May 2015 8.49pm di janwatson12

I used to suffer from psoriasis for about 15 years so I have tried every single cream & ointment there is. Unfortunately almost every cream had little effect at all but thankfully I was actually able to completely cure my psoriasis after my cousin told me how she cured hers. I only had to do 2 things,:

1. Use a humidifier in your house. This will add moisture to the air and to your skin without you knowing.

2. Follow every step in the free video & guide seen at http://curehealthproblem.com/psoriasis.

Try those two steps and hopefully you will get as much luck with getting rid of psoriasis as I did. Just remember psoriasis does not have to be a permanent problem, creams may slightly ease symptoms occasionally (as does fish oil capsules) but you really need to tackle the root cause.



Posted Tue 9 Jun 2015 6.19pm di yhia
i really dont know i was have allot of dandruff in my scalp the no shampoo help (h & s or clear) then i visit the dermatologist and he said

hi i recently diagnosed with scalp psoriasis and my doctor give me” neotigason” once daily and dermosalic lotion but i think it is a lot to take a systemic drug for that issue so i am using now menoxidyltar shampoo its the second time and i am still waiting
i am even suspect to have seporic dermatitis rather then psoriasis
plz help me with ur experiences
thanx



Posted Tue 16 Jun 2015 8.36am di kayess

Cocois scalp ointment is the best it is made from coconut oil and a type of sulphur, you leave it on for an hour and i do this ever 2 or 3 weeks. It has changed my life. get it on prescription, luckily i live in wales where prescriptions are free 🙂



Posted Sun 26 Jul 2015 7.46pm di sherlock
Scalp

About 5 years ago I started to get symptoms of scalp psoriasis: red patches on the back of my head with the tell-tale flakes, however I have no other psoriasis symptoms elsewhere. After a year or so, I went to the doctor and was prescribed Cocois: this was too severe for my scalp so I persevered with T-Gel which controlled the flakes but it wasn't a cure. After putting up with symptoms for a number of years, 3 or so months ago I thought I would try something new and I tried some of the lotions and potions you can find recommended on the internet, again with no luck. But then I had a thought: the symptoms started shortly after we had a new power shower installed; my one luxury being a hot shower in the mornings before work. Perhaps the cause was the hot water hair wash? Immediately I stopped washing my hair in hot water but switched to a rinse with cold water, using T-Gel. The improvement was noticeable immediately as the red plaques become less inflamed and the flakes much less apparent. After 3 months using this method I would not say I am cured but the symptoms are much more under control. As I said previously, I don't have any wider psoriasis symptoms with plaques elsewhere but this method works for me. Its a quick and easy method and perhaps will work for someone else 🙂



Posted Tue 4 Aug 2015 6.33pm di Psoriasis Sucks!
I have psoriasis everywhere!

= IMPORTANT=

I have aggressive psoriasis everywhere on my body since I was 16 including my scalp. I have over 15 years of trial and errors.

Use: Derma-Smoothe/FS (Scalp Oil), it has Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.01% Topical oil in it.

THIS STUFF WORKS! In three weeks all my scalp psoriasis issues were 100% gone. Scalp plaques disappear cause this stuff works directly on the sores. That's right, this stuff doesn't suppress plaques and sores, it totally eliminates them. That means no flakes or red or pink patches PERIOD.

You apply a thin film to damp hair and scalp, let it sit for a minimum of 4 hours and then remove/wash it out with your favorite shampoo and pat dry.
Most dermatologists recommend you apply to damp hair & scalp at night, wear a shower cap during sleep and remove in the morning with your favorite shampoo. This method is recommended because your scalp gets much better blood circulation when your body is repairing it's self during sleep in the horizontal sleeping positions.

This is a prescription medication not an over the counter medication. I have had 0 (zero) side effects with this medication.

Derma-Smoothe/FS is available in a scalp oil and a body oil. I have not tried the body oil at all so I can not comment.
This great medication is manufactured and distributed by Hill Dermaceuticals, Inc. in Sanford, Florida 32773. With out insurance a 4 ounce bottle use to cost me $35.00. But since the Affordable Care Act (Obama Care), it has risen to around $300.00-$400.00 for the same 4 ounce bottle. There is only one other generic that I am aware of.

Derma-Smoothe/FS scalp oil is very basic. Here are the contents as it says on the manufactures box.

CONTAINS:
Fluocinolone Acetonide (0.01%)
Isopropyl Alcohol (1.6%)
in a base containing Refined Peanut Oil NF, Mineral Oil, Isopropyl Myristate, Oleth-2, Cream Fragrance and Balsam Pine.

Please keep in mind that if you are allergic to nuts of any kind you should be careful when using this medication because the base contains refined peanut oil.

This is my first time on this site and my first post as well but I will be back on soon to read all the fantastic comments and replies about this medication because THIS STUFF WORKS!



Posted Wed 19 Aug 2015 10.47pm di shava
covered for 40 years

I use selsun shampoo from chemist work a treat scalp totally clear



Posted Sun 30 Aug 2015 7.59am di babsrose
Now 73, have had psoriasis since I was six. Since I was 25 years I have been able to keep it at a minimum but constant awareness is key to

I too have some small psoriasis patches on my scalp and at present I find the best shampoo on prescription is Capasal Therapeutic Shampoo. The trick is to soap up and leave it in contact with your scalp for at least 5 minus.

I also use Betnovate Dovobet gel for removing any scabs or if no scabs Calcipotriol 50 microgram scalp solution. Both on prescription.

I have been a sufferer of this skin disease since I was 6 years old and now 75!! In my case my condition much improved when I left home and married to a more restful atmosphere. I have little psoriasis now but recently had a tiny outbreak of what is known as Guttate psoriasis and when I went to see a specialist she suggested the following treatment for the scalp:

1 Cocois ointment leave in 3-4 hours
2 Shampoo as above leave in for at least 5-10 mins
Towel dry and then use Elocon scalp lotion.
Haven't tried this yet.

For my small outbreak of Guttate psoriasis she prescribed the following:

Mometasone Furoate 0.1 w/w cream to put on in the morning and Silkis 3 micrograms ointment to put on each night. This seems to be working.

So I hope this helps anyone out there and have heart it does seem to get better as you age. That's my experience anyway. Another tip try and avoid stress.



Posted Wed 30 Sep 2015 11.11am di Cass076
On my scalp for 24 years

Ciao,

I am 39 years old and I have had scalp psoriasis since I was 10. I don't know what to do anymore. Its unbearable. The itchiness if driving me insane. I have been to the doctor for numerous solutions, the nautropath for my diet, the chinese herbalist and tried acupunture. Nothing is working. TGel doesn't work, I use natural chemical free shampoo's and conditioners. The dermatologist even made up a tar and coconut oil concoction for me which I have to paste on to my scalp every night but this stings for about 30 minutes then I have to scrub my hair the next day. The itchiness starts again by lunch time.

All I want is to stop the itchiness, I know I cannot cure the psoriasis but I just don't want the constant pain and scratching anymore.

I have a list of all the things you have all suggested Lush superbalm, hair doctor and snake oil. Ginger Capsules. I will go buy them all tomorrow 🙁



Posted Thu 19 Nov 2015 2.16pm di dandruff65
scalp

body shop ginger anti dandruff shampoo plus almost 2 weeks of 1 ginger capsule per day has had a major effect on my scalp psoriasis. Better results than any steroid or coal tar product prescribed or purchased over the last 2 years.Cant say with certainty if its one the other or both working but whichever it is it has reduced itchiness lumpiness and flakes dramatically-relatively inexpensive too!Wish i had discovered it sooner and hence this post. It may work for you too .joined this platform solely to flag this up to fellow sufferers



Posted Wed 23 Dec 2015 8.50pm di Ros

Hi everyone,

I'm new to the site, and hoping to be able to help, as well as get support/advice etc.

I've had psoriasis for 20 years, top to bottom – various flare ups over the years (disappears when pregnant and breastfeeding… Not enough of an excuse to stay pregnant though!!). Currently experiencing crazy levels of discoid eczema on top of existing psoriasis, and am hoping that the new Amevive jab might be something that helps, if the NHS will allow me to try it. Watch this space; I've got a dermatology appointment in the New Year.

Your post about scalp treatments caught my eye. I've recommended this product to anyone who will listen, over the years. It's the only thing that's ever worked, and I just happened to try a sample sachet once, about eight or nine years ago. Anyone who tries it tells me it's helped. L'Oreal Elvive Anti-Dandruff Shampoo for Men with 'Active Selenium 'S''. Currently packaged in an orange and black bottle. Available in Tesco and via Amazon. Try it, please. Follow the instructions, use a few times a week (these days I only use it occasionally, along with regular shampoo in between 'treatments'), and I really hope things improve for you.

Good luck,
Ros



Posted Tue 29 Mar 2016 8.46am di Debbie
Yes

Ciao!
I have had scalp psoriasis for over 30 years. I now use Paul Mitchell's tea tree shampoo, it has been the best result I have ever had. I now won't use any other shampoo. If my scalp flare's up I use betnovate scalp application prescribed by my doctor.



Posted Wed 19 Oct 2016 10.31pm di gretajenkins

I have been using the Pro Naturals and works really well for my hair 😉



Posted Thu 10 Nov 2016 11.06am di JessF

I found Humankind Organics which worked for me, it's organic so I knew it can't be bad for me like Coal Tar.

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Psorilax:Immediatamente |crema linitiva prurito psoriasi

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Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, ingredienti

Rapporto di attività – Effetto di Corona Virus / Covid 19 sul mercato globale dell'aromaterapia. L'amministratore delegato dell'FMI Kristalina Georgieva ha dichiarato che l'FMI sta mettendo a disposizione circa $ 50 miliardi attraverso i suoi strumenti di finanziamento di emergenza a erogazione rapida per i paesi a basso reddito e dei mercati emergenti che potrebbero potenzialmente chiedere sostegno. Di questi, 10 miliardi di dollari sono disponibili a interesse zero per i membri più poveri attraverso la struttura di credito rapido. Con la Polonia che conferma il suo primo caso il 3 marzo 2020, le aziende di tutto il mondo stanno ripensando le loro prospettive di vendita e crescita.

La scarsità di ingredienti cinesi, materie prime e semilavorati è l'ultimo esempio della dipendenza dell'economia globale dai prodotti fabbricati in Cina, dagli iPhone ai ricambi auto al settore farmaceutico. Gran parte delle ricadute potrebbero essere ancora nascoste ed è probabile che si protraggano per mesi. Anche prima dell'epidemia di coronavirus, gli investimenti delle imprese erano già in cattive condizioni di salute negli Stati Uniti. È crollato negli ultimi tre trimestri del 2019. Alcuni analisti ora prevedono che più aziende potrebbero presto annunciare riduzioni della spesa in conto capitale.

Trusted Business Insights risponde a quali sono gli scenari di crescita e ripresa e se ci sarà un impatto strutturale duraturo dalla crisi in atto per il mercato dell'aromaterapia.

Qual è il percorso di recupero probabile per il mercato dell'aromaterapia?

Se le economie possono evitare la recessione o meno, il percorso di ritorno alla crescita sotto Covid-19 dipenderà da una serie di fattori, come il grado in cui la domanda sarà ritardata o scartata, se lo shock è veramente un picco o dura, o se ci sono danni strutturali, tra gli altri fattori. È ragionevole delineare tre grandi scenari, che abbiamo descritto come di seguito

Scenario classico: Questo scenario descrive lo shock “classico” dell'economia reale, uno spostamento della produzione, ma la crescita alla fine riparte. In questo scenario, i tassi di crescita annuali potrebbero assorbire completamente lo shock. Anche se può sembrare ottimista nell'oscurità di oggi, pensiamo che sia plausibile.

Scenario di brutto fratello classico: Questo scenario è il brutto fratello dello scenario classico: lo shock persiste e, mentre il percorso di crescita iniziale viene ripreso, si verifica una perdita permanente di produzione. È plausibile per Covid-19? Assolutamente, ma i nostri ricercatori vogliono vedere più prove del danno effettivo del virus per renderlo il caso base.

Scenario brutto e povero: Questo scenario è la visione molto brutta e povera. Perché ciò si materializzi, dovresti credere nella capacità di Covid-19 di arrecare un danno strutturale significativo, vale a dire rompere qualcosa dal lato dell'offerta economica: il mercato del lavoro, la formazione di capitale o la funzione di produttività. Questo è difficile da immaginare anche con ipotesi pessimistiche. Ad un certo punto, saremo dall'altra parte di questa epidemia.

Covid-19 potrebbe creare il proprio retaggio strutturale e avere un impatto sul mercato dell'aromaterapia? La storia (epidemie passate) suggerisce che l'economia globale dopo una grave crisi come Covid-19 sarà probabilmente diversa in molti modi significativi.

Eredità microeconomica: Le crisi, comprese le epidemie, possono stimolare l'adozione di nuove tecnologie e modelli di business. L'epidemia di SARS del 2003 è spesso attribuita all'adozione dello shopping online tra i consumatori cinesi, accelerando l'ascesa di Alibaba. Dato che le scuole hanno chiuso in Giappone e potrebbero chiudersi plausibilmente negli Stati Uniti e in altri mercati, l'e-learning e l'e-delivery dell'istruzione potrebbero vedere una svolta? Inoltre, gli sforzi digitali a Wuhan per contenere la crisi tramite localizzatori di smartphone hanno effettivamente dimostrato un nuovo potente strumento di salute pubblica?

Eredità macroeconomica: Corona Virus accelererà i progressi verso catene di valore globali più decentralizzate – essenzialmente il virus aggiunge una dimensione biologica alle forze politiche e istituzionali che hanno spinto il modello di catena del valore pre-2016 in una direzione più frammentata. Questo significa opportunità per i giocatori locali.

Eredità politica: Le ramificazioni politiche non devono essere escluse, a livello globale, poiché il virus mette alla prova la capacità dei vari sistemi politici di proteggere efficacemente le loro popolazioni. A livello multilaterale, la crisi potrebbe essere letta come un appello a una maggiore cooperazione o al contrario allontanare ulteriormente i centri bipolari del potere geopolitico.

Cosa dovrebbero fare le imprese in relazione ai rischi economici?

Le intuizioni dei mercati finanziari possono essere rese operative come segue:

Non diventare apertamente dipendente dalle proiezioni. I mercati finanziari stanno attualmente riflettendo una grande incertezza. Una vasta gamma di scenari rimane plausibile e dovrebbe essere esplorata dalle aziende.

Non consentire alle girovaghe dei mercati finanziari di appannare il giudizio sull'attività che conduci.

Concentrati sui segnali di fiducia dei consumatori, fidati del tuo istinto e sai come sfruttare i dati della tua azienda nel calibrare tali approfondimenti. L'impatto non sarà uniforme

Inizia a guardare oltre la crisi. Quale micro o macroeconomia o eredità avrà Covid-19? Quali opportunità o sfide sorgeranno?
Considera come affronterai il mondo post-crisi. Puoi far parte di una più rapida adozione di nuove tecnologie, nuovi processi, ecc.? Riesci a trovare un vantaggio nelle avversità per la tua azienda, i clienti e la società? Trusted Business Insights presenta uno studio aggiornato e più recente sul mercato dell'aromaterapia 2019-2026. Il rapporto contiene previsioni di mercato relative a dimensioni del mercato, entrate, produzione, CAGR, consumo, margine lordo, prezzo e altri fattori sostanziali. Pur sottolineando le principali forze trainanti e limitanti per questo mercato, il rapporto offre anche uno studio completo delle tendenze e degli sviluppi futuri del mercato. Il rapporto approfondisce ulteriormente gli aspetti micro e macroeconomici, incluso il panorama sociopolitico che dovrebbe modellare la domanda del mercato dell'aromaterapia durante il periodo di previsione (2019-2029).
Esamina inoltre il ruolo dei principali attori del mercato coinvolti nel settore, tra cui la panoramica aziendale, il riepilogo finanziario e l'analisi SWOT.

Ottieni una copia di esempio di questo rapporto sul mercato globale dell'aromaterapia: riepilogo esecutivo su tendenze, ultimi sviluppi, fattori di crescita e fattori di rischio, marchi preferiti e leader regionali

Il mercato globale dell'aromaterapia dovrebbe stimare oltre 1 miliardo di dollari nel 2019 e dovrebbe registrare un CAGR del 6,8%. Il rapporto offre approfondimenti, dettagli sulle entrate e altre informazioni vitali riguardanti il ​​mercato globale dell'aromaterapia e le varie tendenze, driver, restrizioni, opportunità e minacce nel mercato di riferimento fino al 2028. Il rapporto sul mercato globale dell'aromaterapia è stato segmentato sul base del tipo di prodotto, via di somministrazione, applicazione e regione.

Mercato globale dell'aromaterapia: introduzione
L'aromaterapia è una terapia di medicina alternativa e gli oli essenziali utilizzati in questa pratica sono sicuri ed efficaci per combattere batteri, funghi e virus. Inoltre, è noto che la terapia allevia le infezioni respiratorie acute, le infezioni virali, l'influenza e la bronchite. Le principali aree di applicazione dell'aromaterapia comprendono problemi legati alla pelle, gestione del dolore, disturbi cardiovascolari e respiratori, ansia, insonnia, raffreddore e tosse, funzionamento del sistema immunitario e guarigione delle ferite. I benefici sono, elimina la sensazione di depressione, fornisce sollievo da insonnia e stress, rinforza il sistema immunitario e il sistema digestivo, aumenta i livelli di circolazione e di energia nel corpo, aiuta a trattare costipazione, indigestione e gonfiore e riduce la gravità e il disagio causati dalla psoriasi ed eczema.

Mercato globale dell'aromaterapia: dinamica
L'aromaterapia viene sempre più utilizzata nelle case per benefici come il rilassamento e il sonno, il trattamento dell'insonnia, il miglioramento dell'umore, il sollievo dal raffreddore e dall'influenza e il sollievo dal dolore è uno dei principali fattori che dovrebbero guidare la crescita del mercato globale dell'aromaterapia.

Secondo un documento pubblicato dalla Holistic Aromatherapy Association (HAA), la salvia sclarea può essere utilizzata per alleviare il dolore, l'eucalipto come decongestionante e gli aiuti allo zenzero nella digestione, e questi sono gli oli essenziali più comunemente usati dai consumatori

Inoltre, attori di spicco nel mercato di riferimento utilizzano oli essenziali con benefici per la salute nelle innovazioni dei prodotti, a causa del cambiamento e della maggiore domanda dei consumatori di prodotti che offrono relax, bilanciamento o energizzazione e confort sulla base delle proprietà e dell'uso tradizionale degli olii essenziali.

Secondo i dati pubblicati da Eurostat 2018, oltre l'85% del mercato globale dell'aromaterapia comprende la vendita di oli essenziali puri o oli base (oli vegetali usati per diluire oli essenziali come olio di semi di albicocca, olio di vinaccioli, olio di rosa canina e olio di semi di melograno ) in miscele di oli essenziali

Tuttavia, la mancanza di linee guida adeguate e la natura tossica degli oli essenziali e la rigidità delle normative come le indicazioni che un produttore deve menzionare riguardo alla categoria di ciascun olio essenziale, sono alcuni dei principali fattori che dovrebbero ostacolare la crescita del mercato globale dell'aromaterapia

Analisi del mercato dell'aromaterapia globale per tipo di prodotto:
Tra i segmenti di tipo di prodotto, si prevede che il segmento dei materiali di consumo contribuirà con un'importante quota di entrate nel mercato globale dell'aromaterapia e dovrebbe registrare il CAGR più elevato di oltre il 6,5% nel periodo di previsione. Ciò è principalmente dovuto all'aumento della preferenza di spostamento degli individui in tutto il mondo verso l'aromaterapia, a causa di vari motivi come la capacità di ringiovanire la pelle e controllare la caduta dei capelli. Inoltre, l'aumento del reddito disponibile e lo stile di vita frenetico e sedentario sono altri fattori chiave che dovrebbero portare a un maggior numero di individui che cercano approcci naturali per combattere o alleviare disturbi e condizioni minori.

Analisi del mercato dell'aromaterapia globale per via di somministrazione:
Tra le rotte dei segmenti amministrativi, si prevede che il segmento delle applicazioni topiche contribuirà con una quota di ricavi maggiore nel mercato globale dell'aromaterapia e si prevede che registrerà il CAGR più elevato di oltre il 6,5% nel periodo di previsione. Ciò può essere attribuito all'aumento delle attività di ricerca e sviluppo per la produzione di prodotti e ingredienti nuovi e innovativi per l'applicazione topica.

Analisi del mercato dell'aromaterapia globale per applicazione:

Tra i segmenti di applicazione, si prevede che il segmento di gestione del dolore contribuirà con un'importante quota di entrate nel mercato globale dell'aromaterapia e si prevede che registrerà il CAGR più elevato di oltre il 6,4% nel periodo di previsione.

Analisi del mercato dell'aromaterapia globale per regione:

Si prevede che il mercato del Nord America dominerà il mercato globale dell'aromaterapia e si prevede che rappresenti la quota di entrate maggiore rispetto a quella dei mercati di altre regioni. I principali fattori trainanti per la crescita del mercato dell'aromaterapia in questa regione sono il numero crescente di spa che forniscono servizi di massaggio trasmettono una sensazione di pace e piacere, per innescare benefici per la salute e per il benessere nella regione.
Nel maggio 2019, ANAVIA, con sede negli Stati Uniti, che è un'azienda leader nella gioielleria, ha lanciato una nuova ed elegante collezione di gioielli e accessori per aromaterapia con circa 300 pezzi
Il mercato europeo dovrebbe registrare il secondo fatturato più elevato nel mercato globale dell'aromaterapia. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che la crescente adozione di oli essenziali ha portato alla nascita e all'accettazione di una vasta gamma di prodotti disponibili nei negozi al dettaglio. Inoltre, la crescente inclinazione dei consumatori più giovani verso prodotti più naturali e di tendenza è un altro fattore che dovrebbe stimolare la crescita del mercato globale dell'aromaterapia.
Ad esempio, a maggio 2019, Givaudan, leader mondiale nei sapori e nelle fragranze, ha acquisito France-Albert Vieille, specializzata in ingredienti naturali utilizzati nei mercati delle fragranze e dell'aromaterapia
Si prevede che il mercato dell'Asia del Pacifico registrerà il CAGR più elevato di oltre il 7,0% nel periodo di previsione. Ciò è principalmente attribuito al crescente numero di Spa che offrono aromaterapia è in costante aumento, specialmente in paesi in via di sviluppo come l'India, e il rapido aumento delle attività di franchising è uno dei principali fattori che dovrebbero stimolare la crescita del mercato dell'aromaterapia dell'Asia del Pacifico.

Segmentazione del mercato globale dell'aromaterapia:
Segmentazione, per tipo di prodotto:

Materiali di consumo

Oli essenziali

miscele
single

terroso
Floreale
agrume
Erbaceo
Altri

Oli vettore

strumenti

Segmentazione, per via di amministrazione:

Diffusione ariale
Inalazione diretta
Applicazione topica

Segmentazione, per applicazione:

Gestione del dolore
Rilassamento
Cura della pelle e dei capelli
Freddo e tosse
Altri

Segmentazione, per regione:

Nord America
Europa
Asia Pacifico
America latina
Medio Oriente e Africa

Principali operatori di mercato inclusi nel rapporto: mercato globale dell'aromaterapia

doTERRA International LLC
Edens Garden Inc.
Oli essenziali Young Living LC
Frontier Natural Products Co-op Inc.
Rocky Mountain Oil Corp.
Mountain Rose Inc.
Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc.
Air Aroma Co. Ltd.
Ryohin Keikaku Co., Ltd. o Muji
Zija International, Inc.

Approfondimenti chiave trattati: mercato globale dell'aromaterapia
1. America del Nord, Europa, Asia Pacifico, Medio Oriente e Africa, America Latina, dimensioni del mercato (vendite, entrate e tasso di crescita) dell'industria dell'aromaterapia.
2. Situazione operativa dei principali produttori globali (vendite, entrate, tasso di crescita e margine lordo) dell'industria dell'aromaterapia.
3. Principali paesi globali (Stati Uniti, Canada, Germania, Francia, Regno Unito, Italia, Russia, Spagna, Cina, Giappone, Corea, India, Australia, Nuova Zelanda, Sud-est asiatico, Medio Oriente, Africa, Messico, Brasile, C. America, Cile, Perù, Colombia) dimensioni del mercato (vendite, entrate e tasso di crescita) dell'industria dell'aromaterapia.
4. Analisi SWOT, analisi di fattibilità degli investimenti di nuovi progetti, materie prime a monte e attrezzature di produzione e analisi della catena industriale dell'industria dell'aromaterapia.
5. Dimensioni del mercato globale (vendite, entrate) previste per regioni e paesi dal 2019 al 2024 del settore dell'aromaterapia.

Metodologia della ricerca: mercato globale dell'aromaterapia

  • La raccolta dei dati e l'analisi dell'anno base viene effettuata utilizzando moduli di raccolta dati con campioni di grandi dimensioni. I dati di mercato vengono analizzati e previsti utilizzando modelli statistici e di mercato coerenti. Anche l'analisi della quota di mercato e l'analisi delle tendenze chiave sono i principali fattori di successo nel rapporto di mercato. Per saperne di più, richiedi un rapporto di esempio.
  • Collaboratori primari lato domanda: OEM, professionisti del settore industriale, ricerche, fornitori e distributori, organizzazioni di acquisto di gruppo, associazioni, assicuratori, università, scrittori tecnologici, scienziati, promotori, investitori, tra gli altri.
  • Collaboratori primari lato fornitura: Product Manager, Marketing Manager, Dirigenti di livello C, Distributori, Market Intelligence, Responsabili Affari Regolatori, tra gli altri.

Indice delle letture rapide del presente rapporto sul mercato globale dell'aromaterapia: riepilogo esecutivo su tendenze, ultimi sviluppi, fattori di crescita e rischi per la crescita, marchi preferiti e leader regionali

Contatti

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Dirigente marketing e media
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Psorilax:Guida a |crema x psoriasi novobed

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Psorilax: prezzo, funziona, recensioni, opinioni, quanto costa

Nicolas Iragorri

L'artrite psoriasica è spesso una comorbilità dolorosa per i pazienti con psoriasi – e costosa. Uno studio del 2016 pubblicato su Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas ha rilevato che la malattia ha un prezzo di 15.000 USD per paziente in Europa. Tuttavia, tale prezzo si basa anche sull'uso di droghe biologiche che può essere fino all'80% più economico di quelle negli Stati Uniti o in Canada.

Dall'altra parte dello stagno, il trattamento della PsA in Canada affronta molte delle stesse sfide degli Stati Uniti, con la progressione della malattia che alla fine richiede costosi prodotti biologici. Tuttavia, un gruppo di ricercatori ha scoperto che un'aggiunta relativamente semplice alle visite dei medici per i pazienti con psoriasi potrebbe offrire sia importanti risparmi sui costi sia una migliore qualità della vita per i pazienti: screening della psa tramite questionario.

È difficile ottenere ciò che gli operatori sanitari e i sostenitori della sfera politica devono sostenere per lo screening: prova dell'efficacia. Poiché al momento il Canada non dispone di un sistema di screening, i ricercatori non possono produrre dati concreti sullo screening, ecco dove Nicolas Iragorri, MSc, dell'Università di Calgary, e arrivano i colleghi.

Nel loro studio pubblicato in Cura e ricerca dell'artrite, Iragorri e colleghi hanno scoperto che, se la terapia precoce con DMARD può rallentare la progressione della malattia e ritardare il costoso trattamento biologico, lo screening precoce per l'artrite psoriasica tra i pazienti con psoriasi potrebbe risparmiare $ 220 milioni ogni anno in Canada e migliorare la qualità della vita.

Lo screening della PsA potrebbe offrire sia importanti risparmi sui costi sia una migliore qualità della vita per i pazienti, secondo gli esperti.

Fonte: Adobe

Healio Rheumatology ha parlato con Iragorri dei vantaggi dello screening e dei prossimi passi per renderlo realtà, sia in Canada che oltre.

D: Quali strumenti di screening per PsA sono attualmente utilizzati in Canada?

Iragorri: Il Canada non ha in atto un programma di screening convalidato per l'artrite psoriasica. Soprattutto i dermatologi usano questionari, solo questionari di base, come quelli che abbiamo valutato: il (Screening e valutazione dell'artrite psoriasica); il (Questionario di screening per l'artrite psoriasica precoce); lo (strumento di screening dell'artrite psoriasica di Toronto) e lo (strumento di screening dell'epidemiologia della psoriasi). Quindi, in base ai risultati, passano ai test diagnostici.

D: Senza lo screening della PsA, a che punto i pazienti vengono di solito diagnosticati con la PsA?

Iragorri: La maggior parte dei pazienti viene identificata dai dermatologi e quindi indirizzata a un reumatologo quando ci sono già sintomi – vale a dire dolori articolari e gonfiore. In realtà abbiamo collaborato con un paio di reumatologi dell'Università di Calgary che hanno spiegato come è stato fatto questo processo. Poiché la PsA è molto simile ad altre malattie reumatologiche, è difficile assecondare la diagnosi. I pazienti vengono inviati all'ufficio di reumatologia quando i sintomi sono già presenti, quindi non è il vantaggio che lo screening potrebbe fornire. È qui che è entrato il nostro studio.

D: In Canada, wtrattamenti farmacologici per il cappello sono offerti ai pazienti con PsA all'inizio del trattamento?

Iragorri: A seconda della linea di terapia e della misura in cui viene diagnosticata la malattia, ai pazienti viene generalmente raccomandato di iniziare con un trattamento più lieve ed economico, come i DMARD convenzionali: il metotrexato, ad esempio, è una terapia comune all'inizio dei pazienti con PsA della malattia.

Una volta che la malattia progredisce – sappiamo che la malattia progredisce inevitabilmente nella malattia cronica – i reumatologi iniziano a usare i farmaci biologici. Esistono diversi prodotti biologici approvati dai diversi sistemi sanitari canadesi. In Canada, abbiamo 13 diversi sistemi sanitari: uno per provincia. In base al fatto che i pazienti rispondano o meno al trattamento, potrebbero passare a un altro trattamento o usarne due contemporaneamente.

D: Nel tuo studio, quanto è stato efficace lo screening rispetto a il standard senza screening protocollo?

Iragorri: Dipende da come si misura l'efficacia. Se stiamo parlando di efficacia clinica, lo screening non previene la malattia. Se hai la malattia, verrai prelevato mediante screening; tuttavia, lo screening non sarà efficace nel ritardare la malattia. Deve essere seguito con un trattamento efficace. Partiamo dal presupposto che il trattamento che segue la diagnosi precoce dovrebbe ritardare la progressione della malattia.

Tutti i pazienti con PsA, indipendentemente da dove si trovano nel continuum della malattia, procederanno; alcuni ad un ritmo più veloce, altri ad un ritmo più lento. Ciò che stiamo dicendo è che lo screening consente una precoce insorgenza terapeutica e potrebbe ritardare la progressione della malattia, forse ritardare quel punto in cui i pazienti richiedono un trattamento più costoso come il biologico. È qui che entra in gioco l'efficacia, e se vuoi parlare di rapporto costo-efficacia, il punto successivo del modello è in che modo influisce sui costi e su tutto il resto?

D: Parlando di rapporto costo-efficacia, puoi spiegare come è stato condotto quell'aspetto dello studio? Come hai determinato i potenziali risparmi sui costi?

Iragorri: Gli economisti della salute misurano l'efficacia in termini di anni di qualità della vita (QALY): consideriamo la vita prevista per un paziente e consideriamo la qualità della vita per ogni paziente, quindi è una misura bidimensionale. Confrontiamo diverse alternative. Abbiamo lo status quo, o la pratica corrente, e lo abbiamo confrontato con diversi scenari di screening e abbiamo stimato il costo per ottenere un QALY aggiuntivo di 5 anni per ogni scenario. E quello che produce il più basso rappresenterebbe un'opzione conveniente.

Per tradurlo in gergo non economico: implementando un programma di screening, ci si aspetta che ritardiamo quel momento in cui sono necessari prodotti biologici. Ci aspettiamo che i pazienti usino sostanze biologiche nella loro vita. Non ci aspettiamo di curare la malattia. Sappiamo che è una malattia cronica e lo screening non lo impedirà. Ma sappiamo che utilizzando lo screening stiamo riducendo la necessità di assumere farmaci più costosi. Non è solo conveniente, ma abbiamo stimato che lo screening produrrebbe, a lungo termine, risparmi sui costi.

L'implementazione di un programma di screening ha costi iniziali – devi formare le persone, devi consegnare il questionario in ogni clinica di dermatologia – ma poi, quando vedi che i pazienti stanno effettivamente migliorando, è allora che entrano in gioco i risparmi sui costi. Ciò non significa che finirai per far star meglio le persone e risparmierai, ma di solito non è il caso di alcun programma di screening.

D: Quali sono i prossimi passi per implementarlo?

Iragorri: Il prossimo passo è rafforzare queste prove. Una volta che avremo dati clinici effettivi a supporto del modello, possiamo essere più certi di ciò che stiamo dicendo in termini di riduzione dei costi, in termini di miglioramenti della qualità della vita. I ricercatori nel Regno Unito hanno già avviato uno studio clinico che cerca di valutare come lo screening precoce potrebbe essere efficace ed economico per i pazienti con psoriasi. Una volta terminato lo studio, saremo in grado di utilizzare i dati che hanno estratto per affrontare alcune delle incertezze, soprattutto riguardo all'efficacia che prevediamo per lo screening.

Siamo convinti che lo screening alla fine porterebbe a un risparmio sui costi e aumenterebbe la qualità della vita, ma i dati clinici che lo supportano lo miglioreranno. Abbiamo cercato di rovesciare ogni roccia per ottenere i migliori dati di qualità, cosa di cui sono fiducioso, quindi sono entusiasta che le persone ne parlino e spero che questo porti all'azione – negli Stati Uniti, in Canada e nel Regno Unito.

D: Qual è il messaggio da portare a casa per reumatologi e dermatologi?

Iragorri: Le conclusioni sono molto chiare: dobbiamo iniziare lo screening dei pazienti con psoriasi per l'artrite psoriasica. Nella maggior parte delle diverse linee guida per i clinici, si raccomanda ma non si fa a livello di sistema sanitario.

I dermatologi sono in una posizione molto privilegiata per guidare questa iniziativa in quanto possono identificare sistematicamente i pazienti con sintomi di psoriasi rivelatori e non costa quasi nulla. Se i pazienti si rivolgono a un dermatologo o anche a un fornitore di cure primarie, è più facile per loro fare riferimento alla reumatologia in base al fatto che gli strumenti di screening lo determinino se è necessario.

Non stiamo solo parlando di migliorare la qualità della vita, ma anche di ridurre i costi per il sistema sanitario, quindi dobbiamo lavorare in tandem con le cure primarie, con dermatologia, con reumatologia, per ottenere quello che penseresti sia un processo molto intuitivo, per far funzionare lo screening in modo sistematico.

In Canada, abbiamo molti problemi di accessibilità. È più difficile consultare uno specialista, quindi abbiamo messo in atto misure di triage che aiutano adeguatamente i pazienti a navigare uno specialista in base a necessità e rischi che libererebbero risorse e migliorare la qualità della vita in generale, il che è vero per qualsiasi area dell'assistenza sanitaria. – di Amanda Alexander

Per maggiori informazioni:

Nicolas Iragorri è raggiungibile presso l'edificio per l'insegnamento, la ricerca e il benessere, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6; e-mail: nicolas.iragorri@ucalgary.ca

Riferimenti:

Iragorri N, et al. Resistenza alle artriti. 2019; doi: 10.1002 / acr.24110.

Divulgazione: Iragorri riporta finanziamenti dall'Istituto nazionale per la ricerca sanitaria.

Nicolas Iragorri

L'artrite psoriasica è spesso una comorbilità dolorosa per i pazienti con psoriasi – e costosa. Uno studio del 2016 pubblicato su Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas ha rilevato che la malattia ha un prezzo di 15.000 USD per paziente in Europa. Tuttavia, tale prezzo si basa anche sull'uso di droghe biologiche che può essere fino all'80% più economico di quelle negli Stati Uniti o in Canada.

Dall'altra parte dello stagno, il trattamento della PsA in Canada affronta molte delle stesse sfide degli Stati Uniti, con la progressione della malattia che alla fine richiede costosi prodotti biologici. Tuttavia, un gruppo di ricercatori ha scoperto che un'aggiunta relativamente semplice alle visite dei medici per i pazienti con psoriasi potrebbe offrire sia importanti risparmi sui costi sia una migliore qualità della vita per i pazienti: screening della psa tramite questionario.

È difficile ottenere ciò che gli operatori sanitari e i sostenitori della sfera politica devono sostenere per lo screening: prova dell'efficacia. Poiché al momento il Canada non dispone di un sistema di screening, i ricercatori non possono produrre dati concreti sullo screening, ecco dove Nicolas Iragorri, MSc, dell'Università di Calgary, e arrivano i colleghi.

Nel loro studio pubblicato in Cura e ricerca dell'artrite, Iragorri e colleghi hanno scoperto che, se la terapia precoce con DMARD può rallentare la progressione della malattia e ritardare il costoso trattamento biologico, lo screening precoce per l'artrite psoriasica tra i pazienti con psoriasi potrebbe risparmiare $ 220 milioni ogni anno in Canada e migliorare la qualità della vita.

Lo screening della PsA potrebbe offrire sia importanti risparmi sui costi sia una migliore qualità della vita per i pazienti, secondo gli esperti.

Fonte: Adobe

Healio Rheumatology ha parlato con Iragorri dei vantaggi dello screening e dei prossimi passi per renderlo realtà, sia in Canada che oltre.

D: Quali strumenti di screening per PsA sono attualmente utilizzati in Canada?

Iragorri: Il Canada non ha in atto un programma di screening convalidato per l'artrite psoriasica. Soprattutto i dermatologi usano questionari, solo questionari di base, come quelli che abbiamo valutato: il (Screening e valutazione dell'artrite psoriasica); il (Questionario di screening per l'artrite psoriasica precoce); lo (strumento di screening dell'artrite psoriasica di Toronto) e lo (strumento di screening dell'epidemiologia della psoriasi). Quindi, in base ai risultati, passano ai test diagnostici.

D: Senza lo screening della PsA, a che punto i pazienti vengono di solito diagnosticati con la PsA?

Iragorri: La maggior parte dei pazienti viene identificata dai dermatologi e quindi indirizzata a un reumatologo quando ci sono già sintomi – vale a dire dolori articolari e gonfiore. In realtà abbiamo collaborato con un paio di reumatologi dell'Università di Calgary che hanno spiegato come è stato fatto questo processo. Poiché la PsA è molto simile ad altre malattie reumatologiche, è difficile assecondare la diagnosi. I pazienti vengono inviati all'ufficio di reumatologia quando i sintomi sono già presenti, quindi non è il vantaggio che lo screening potrebbe fornire. È qui che è entrato il nostro studio.

INTERRUZIONE DI PAGINA

D: In Canada, wtrattamenti farmacologici per il cappello sono offerti ai pazienti con PsA all'inizio del trattamento?

Iragorri: A seconda della linea di terapia e della misura in cui viene diagnosticata la malattia, ai pazienti viene generalmente raccomandato di iniziare con un trattamento più lieve ed economico, come i DMARD convenzionali: il metotrexato, ad esempio, è una terapia comune all'inizio dei pazienti con PsA della malattia.

Una volta che la malattia progredisce – sappiamo che la malattia progredisce inevitabilmente nella malattia cronica – i reumatologi iniziano a usare i farmaci biologici. Esistono diversi prodotti biologici approvati dai diversi sistemi sanitari canadesi. In Canada, abbiamo 13 diversi sistemi sanitari: uno per provincia. In base al fatto che i pazienti rispondano o meno al trattamento, potrebbero passare a un altro trattamento o usarne due contemporaneamente.

D: Nel tuo studio, quanto è stato efficace lo screening rispetto a il standard senza screening protocollo?

Iragorri: Dipende da come si misura l'efficacia. Se stiamo parlando di efficacia clinica, lo screening non previene la malattia. Se hai la malattia, verrai prelevato mediante screening; tuttavia, lo screening non sarà efficace nel ritardare la malattia. Deve essere seguito con un trattamento efficace. Partiamo dal presupposto che il trattamento che segue la diagnosi precoce dovrebbe ritardare la progressione della malattia.

Tutti i pazienti con PsA, indipendentemente da dove si trovano nel continuum della malattia, procederanno; alcuni ad un ritmo più veloce, altri ad un ritmo più lento. Ciò che stiamo dicendo è che lo screening consente una precoce insorgenza terapeutica e potrebbe ritardare la progressione della malattia, forse ritardare quel punto in cui i pazienti richiedono un trattamento più costoso come i farmaci biologici. È qui che entra in gioco l'efficacia, e se vuoi parlare di rapporto costo-efficacia, il punto successivo del modello è in che modo influisce sui costi e su tutto il resto?

D: Parlando di rapporto costo-efficacia, puoi spiegare come è stato condotto quell'aspetto dello studio? Come hai determinato i potenziali risparmi sui costi?

Iragorri: Gli economisti della salute misurano l'efficacia in termini di anni di qualità della vita (QALY): consideriamo la vita prevista per un paziente e consideriamo la qualità della vita per ogni paziente, quindi è una misura bidimensionale. Confrontiamo diverse alternative. Abbiamo lo status quo, o la pratica corrente, e lo abbiamo confrontato con diversi scenari di screening e abbiamo stimato il costo per ottenere un QALY aggiuntivo di 5 anni per ogni scenario. E quello che produce il più basso rappresenterebbe un'opzione conveniente.

INTERRUZIONE DI PAGINA

Per tradurlo in gergo non economico: implementando un programma di screening, ci si aspetta che ritardiamo quel momento in cui sono necessari prodotti biologici. Ci aspettiamo che i pazienti usino sostanze biologiche nella loro vita. Non ci aspettiamo di curare la malattia. Sappiamo che è una malattia cronica e lo screening non lo impedirà. Ma sappiamo che utilizzando lo screening stiamo riducendo la necessità di assumere farmaci più costosi. Non è solo conveniente, ma abbiamo stimato che lo screening produrrebbe, a lungo termine, risparmi sui costi.

L'implementazione di un programma di screening ha costi iniziali – devi formare le persone, devi consegnare il questionario in ogni clinica dermatologica – ma poi, quando vedi che i pazienti stanno effettivamente migliorando, è allora che entrano in gioco i risparmi sui costi. Ciò non significa che finirai per far star meglio le persone e risparmierai, ma di solito non è il caso di alcun programma di screening.

D: Quali sono i prossimi passi per implementarlo?

Iragorri: Il prossimo passo è rafforzare queste prove. Una volta che avremo dati clinici effettivi a supporto del modello, possiamo essere più certi di ciò che stiamo dicendo in termini di riduzione dei costi, in termini di miglioramenti della qualità della vita. I ricercatori nel Regno Unito hanno già avviato uno studio clinico che cerca di valutare come lo screening precoce potrebbe essere efficace ed economico per i pazienti con psoriasi. Una volta terminato lo studio, saremo in grado di utilizzare i dati che hanno estratto per affrontare alcune delle incertezze, soprattutto riguardo all'efficacia che prevediamo per lo screening.

Siamo convinti che lo screening alla fine porterebbe a un risparmio sui costi e aumenterebbe la qualità della vita, ma i dati clinici che lo supportano lo miglioreranno. Abbiamo cercato di rovesciare ogni roccia per ottenere i migliori dati di qualità, cosa di cui sono fiducioso, quindi sono entusiasta che le persone ne parlino e spero che questo porti all'azione – negli Stati Uniti, in Canada e nel Regno Unito.

D: Qual è il messaggio da portare a casa per reumatologi e dermatologi?

Iragorri: Le conclusioni sono molto chiare: dobbiamo iniziare lo screening dei pazienti con psoriasi per l'artrite psoriasica. Nella maggior parte delle diverse linee guida per i clinici, si raccomanda ma non si fa a livello di sistema sanitario.

INTERRUZIONE DI PAGINA

I dermatologi sono in una posizione molto privilegiata per guidare questa iniziativa in quanto possono identificare sistematicamente i pazienti con sintomi di psoriasi rivelatori e non costa quasi nulla. Se i pazienti si rivolgono a un dermatologo o anche a un fornitore di cure primarie, è più facile per loro fare riferimento alla reumatologia in base al fatto che gli strumenti di screening lo determinino se è necessario.

Non stiamo solo parlando di migliorare la qualità della vita, ma anche di ridurre i costi per il sistema sanitario, quindi dobbiamo lavorare in tandem con le cure primarie, con dermatologia, con reumatologia, per ottenere quello che pensi sia un processo molto intuitivo, per far funzionare lo screening in modo sistematico.

In Canada, abbiamo molti problemi di accessibilità. È più difficile consultare uno specialista, quindi abbiamo messo in atto misure di triage che aiutano adeguatamente i pazienti a navigare uno specialista in base a necessità e rischi che libererebbero risorse e migliorare la qualità della vita in generale, il che è vero per qualsiasi area dell'assistenza sanitaria. – di Amanda Alexander

Per maggiori informazioni:

Nicolas Iragorri è raggiungibile presso l'edificio per l'insegnamento, la ricerca e il benessere, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6; e-mail: nicolas.iragorri@ucalgary.ca

Riferimenti:

Iragorri N, et al. Resistenza alle artriti. 2019; doi: 10.1002 / acr.24110.

Divulgazione: Iragorri riporta finanziamenti dall'Istituto nazionale per la ricerca sanitaria.

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UNITO
STATI

TITOLI
E COMMISSIONE DI SCAMBIO

Washington,
D.C. 20549

MODULO
10-K

(X) ANNUALE
    RELAZIONE AI SENSI DELLA SEZIONE 13 O 15 (d) DELL'ATTO DI SCAMBIO DI TITOLI DEL 1934

Per
l'anno fiscale chiuso il 31 dicembre 2019

() TRANSIZIONE
    RELAZIONE AI SENSI DELLA SEZIONE 13 O 15 (d) DELL'ATTO DI SCAMBIO DI TITOLI DEL 1934

Per il periodo di transizione da ____________
per ____________

Commissione
numero di file 001-36457

Provectus
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact
nome del dichiarante come specificato nella sua carta)

Delaware 90-0031917

(Stato
        o altra giurisdizione di

incorporazione
        o organizzazione)

(I.R.S.
        Datore di lavoro

Identificazione
        No.)

10025
Investment Drive, Suite 250, Knoxville, TN 37932

(Indirizzo
delle principali cariche esecutive) (Codice Postale)

866-594-5999

(Dichiarante è
numero di telefono, incluso prefisso)

valori
registrato ai sensi della Sezione 12 (b) della Legge:

Titolo
    di ogni classe
Trading
    Simbolo (s)
Nome
    di ogni scambio su cui registrato
Nessuna N / A N / A

valori
registrato ai sensi della Sezione 12 (g) della Legge:

Comune
Azione, valore nominale $ 0,001 per azione

(Titolo
di classe)

Indicare
con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante è un emittente stagionato noto, come definito nella Regola 405 del Securities Act. ()
Sì (X) No

Indicare
con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante non è tenuto a presentare segnalazioni ai sensi della Sezione 13 o della Sezione 15 (d) della Legge. ()
Sì (X) No

Indicare
con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante (1) ha archiviato tutti i rapporti che devono essere archiviati dalla Sezione 13 o 15 (d) della Borsa valori
Legge del 1934 nei 12 mesi precedenti (o per un periodo così breve che il dichiarante era tenuto a presentare tali rapporti),
e (2) è stato soggetto a tali requisiti di archiviazione negli ultimi 90 giorni. (X) Sì () No

Indicare
con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante ha inviato elettronicamente tutti i file di dati interattivi che devono essere inviati ai sensi
alla regola 405 del regolamento S-T (§ 232.405 del presente capitolo) nei 12 mesi precedenti (o per un periodo più breve che
il dichiarante doveva inviare tali file). (X) Sì () No

Indicare
dal segno di spunta se il dichiarante è un filer accelerato di grandi dimensioni, un filer accelerato, un filer non accelerato, un report più piccolo
società o una società in crescita emergente. Vedere le definizioni di “filer accelerato di grandi dimensioni”, “filer accelerato”,
“Società di segnalazione più piccola” e “società di crescita emergente” nella Regola 12b-2 della Legge sugli scambi.

Grande
    filer accelerato
() Accelerated
    filer
()
Non-accelerato
    filer
(X)
Più piccolo
    società segnalante
(X)
emergenti
    società in crescita
()

Se
una società emergente in crescita, indicare con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante ha scelto di non utilizzare il periodo di transizione esteso per
conformità a qualsiasi principio di contabilità finanziaria nuovo o rivisto fornito ai sensi della Sezione 13 (a) dello Exchange Act. ()

Indicare
con un segno di spunta se il dichiarante è una società di comodo (come definito nella Regola 12b-2 della Legge). () Sì (X) No

Il
valore di mercato aggregato delle azioni ordinarie votanti e senza diritto di voto detenute da non affiliate calcolato con riferimento al prezzo al
il cui capitale comune è stato venduto l'ultima volta al 28 giugno 2019 è stato di $ 23.304.507 (calcolato sulla base di $ 0,063 per azione).

Il numero di azioni in circolazione dei dichiaranti
azioni ordinarie, valore nominale $ 0,00 per azione, al 2 marzo 2020 era di 390.689.475.

DOCUMENTI
INCORPORATO DA RIFERIMENTO

Il
le informazioni richieste dalla Parte III sono incorporate facendo riferimento a parti dell'istruzione di delega definitiva da archiviare
120 giorni dopo il 31 dicembre 2019, ai sensi del Regolamento 14A ai sensi del Securities Exchange Act del 1934 in relazione al
Riunione annuale degli azionisti per il 2020.

TAVOLO
DI CONTENUTO

cautelativa
NOTA PER QUANTO RIGUARDA LE DICHIARAZIONI DI AVANTI

Questo
La relazione annuale sul modulo 10-K contiene “dichiarazioni previsionali” come definite dalle leggi federali statunitensi sui titoli. Questi
le dichiarazioni riflettono le attuali conoscenze, assunzioni, credenze, stime e aspettative della direzione. Anche queste dichiarazioni
esprimere le opinioni attuali della direzione su prestazioni, risultati e tendenze future e possono essere identificate dall'uso dei termini
come “anticipare”, “credere”, “potrebbe”, “stimare”, “aspettarsi”, “obiettivo”,
“Intendi”, “può”, “pianificare”, “prevedere”, “progetto”, “dovrebbe”,
“Strategia”, “volontà” e altri termini simili. Mentre crediamo che le aspettative si riflettano nel nostro sguardo al futuro
le dichiarazioni sono ragionevoli, non possiamo dare alcuna garanzia che tali aspettative si dimostreranno corrette. Dichiarazioni lungimiranti sono
soggetto a rischi e incertezze che potrebbero far sì che i nostri risultati effettivi differiscano materialmente dai risultati futuri, dalle prestazioni,
o risultati espressi o impliciti in qualsiasi dichiarazione lungimirante che facciamo. Alcuni dei rischi e delle incertezze rilevanti
ciò potrebbe far sì che le nostre prestazioni effettive differiscano materialmente dalle dichiarazioni previsionali contenute in questo rapporto
discusso di seguito alla voce “Fattori di rischio” e altrove nella presente relazione annuale sul modulo 10-K. Avvertiamo gli investitori
che queste discussioni su rischi e incertezze importanti non sono esclusive e che la nostra attività potrebbe essere soggetta ad altri rischi
e incertezze che non sono dettagliate qui. Si avvisano gli investitori di non fare eccessivo affidamento sulle nostre dichiarazioni previsionali.
Facciamo dichiarazioni previsionali alla data in cui la presente relazione annuale sul modulo 10-K è archiviata presso i titoli statunitensi e
Commissione di cambio (la “SEC”) e non ci assumiamo alcun obbligo di aggiornare le dichiarazioni previsionali dopo la data
del presente documento a seguito di nuove informazioni o eventi, circostanze modificate o altro, salvo quanto richiesto dalla legge.

PARTE
io

Generale

Provectus
Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Provectus”, la “Società” o “noi”) è una fase clinica
società di biotecnologie che sviluppa una nuova classe di farmaci per oncologia, ematologia e dermatologia basata su un intero, interamente posseduto,
famiglia di piccole molecole chimiche chiamate xanteni alogenati. Intratumoral (aka intralesionale) PV-10®, il primo piccolo
l'immunoterapia autolitica molecolare, che può indurre la morte cellulare immunogenica, è in fase di studio clinico per tumore solido adulto
tumori come melanoma e tumori gastrointestinali (ad es. carcinoma epatocellulare, carcinoma del colon-retto metastatico, neuroendocrino metastatico
tumori, melanoma uveale metastatico) e studio preclinico per tumori pediatrici tumorali solidi (ad es. neuroblastoma, sarcoma di Ewing,
rabdomiosarcoma, osteosarcoma) e tumori del sangue (ad es. leucemia mieloide acuta). PH-10® topico è in fase di studio clinico
per dermatosi infiammatorie (ad es. psoriasi, dermatite atopica). Provectus è una società del Delaware fondata nel 2002.

Nostro
Core Science

Oncologia.
Il prodotto farmacologico PV-10 è una formulazione iniettabile di sodio bengala disodico (4,5,6,7-tetracloro-2 “, 4”, 5 “, 7” tetraiodofluoresceina
sale disodico) (“RB”) sostanza medicinale (cioè ingrediente farmaceutico attivo). PV-10 è una soluzione rosso rosa brillante
contenente 10% p / v di RB in soluzione salina allo 0,9% iniettabile, che viene fornito in flaconcini di vetro monouso contenenti 5 ml (per erogare) di
soluzione. Il PV-10 viene somministrato direttamente alla malattia superficiale (ad es. Melanoma cutaneo) tramite iniezione e alla malattia viscerale
(ad es. tumori gastrointestinali) mediante iniezione percutanea guidata da immagini. PV-10 si accumula selettivamente nei lisosomi delle cellule tumorali. Cancro
le cellule, in particolare le cellule cancerose avanzate, dipendono molto dall'efficace funzionamento lisosomiale (Piao et al., Ann N Y Acad
Sci
2016
). La progressione del cancro e le metastasi sono associate a cambiamenti del compartimento lisosomiale (Nishimura et al., Pathol
Oncol Res
1998; Gocheva et al., Genes Dev 2006
), che sono strettamente correlati, tra l'altro, invasivi
crescita, angiogenesi e resistenza ai farmaci (Fahrenbacher et al., Cancer Res 2005). Proprietà fisico-chimiche di
trappola per lisosomi PV-10. Il pH lumenale da 4,5 a 5 è ideale per la conversione del disodio rosa bengala solubile in rosa bengala insolubile
lattone.

lisosomi
sono gli organelli centrali per la degradazione intracellulare di macromolecole e organelli biologici. Scoperto da Christian
de Duve, M.D. nel 1955, i lisosomi sono stati collegati a una serie di processi biologici come la morte cellulare, l'attivazione dell'inflammasoma,
e risposta immunitaria. Nel 1959, il Dr. de Duve descrisse i lisosomi come “sacche suicide”, perché la loro rottura portò alle cellule
morte e autolisi dei tessuti. I lisosomi hanno dimostrato di avere un ruolo in ciascuna delle vie primarie della morte cellulare, che sono
apoptosi, autofagia e necrosi. Ha ricevuto il premio Nobel nel 1974 per la scoperta e la caratterizzazione dei lisosomi.

Provectus
ha dimostrato che il PV-10 si accumula selettivamente nei lisosomi delle cellule tumorali e li interrompe, causando la morte delle cellule tumorali.
PV-10 (RB) ha anche dimostrato a Provectus e ricercatori indipendenti di innescare ogni forma maggiore e distinta di cellula lisosomiale
Morte; cioè apoptosi, autofagia e necrosi.

PV-10 di
il targeting lisosomiale comprende:

Transiting the plasmalemma
    (cioè la membrana cellulare) delle cellule tumorali. PV-10 penetra nella membrana cellulare delle cellule cancerose che normalmente
    protegge la cellula cancerosa dal suo ambiente circostante. PV-10, tuttavia, è escluso dalle cellule normali;
accumulare
    nei lisosomi delle cellule tumorali. Come notato sopra, le proprietà fisico-chimiche dei lisosomi intrappolano PV-10;
Attivazione
    il rilascio di contenuti lisosomiali. L'autolisi acuta può verificarsi entro 60 minuti. Primi lavori preclinici di Provectus sui PV-10
    il targeting lisosomiale ha mostrato risposte identiche in diversi modelli patologici, come ad esempio Carcinoma epatocellulare murino Hepa1-6,
    Carcinoma mammario umano HTB-133
e carcinoma polmonare polmonare umano multi-farmaco H96Ar;
indurre
    la rapida morte cellulare delle cellule tumorali. I primi lavori di esclusione di tripan blu di Provectus hanno confermato la morte cellulare entro poche ore;
    e
intracellulare
    Coerenza del pH con rilascio di contenuto acido lisosomiale. Colorazione seminofthorhodafluor-1 (“SNARF-1”) precoce
    il lavoro di Provectus ha confermato un pH intracellulare inferiore all'esposizione a PV-10 (RB).

Dermatologia.
Per la psoriasi, i percorsi significativamente migliorati comprendono i trascrittomi della psoriasi pubblicati e le risposte cellulari mediate
da IL-17, IL-22 e interferoni. Il lavoro clinico ha dimostrato che oltre 500 geni correlati alla malattia erano down-regolati dopo quattro
settimane di applicazione del PH-10 ed espressione di una vasta gamma di geni centrali “correlati alla psoriasi” tra cui IL-23, IL-17,
IL-22, S100A7, IL-19, IL-36 e CXCL1 sono stati effettivamente normalizzati; cioè, la pelle lesionata trattata aveva valori nello stesso intervallo
come pelle basale non lesionale.

Nostro
Strategia di sviluppo di farmaci per oncologia

Il
La strategia dell'azienda è quella di (i) dimostrare l'azione indipendente del singolo agente PV-10; cioè sicurezza e attività in T
tipi di tumore infiammato a cellule e non a cellule T, in tipi di tumore a carico di mutazioni tumorali elevati e bassi e in altre categorie di tumori,
come le mutazioni geniche, (ii) dimostrano l'induzione coordinata di molteplici vie di segnalazione immunitaria (cioè immunogenico funzionale
morte cellulare (“ICD”); Snyder et al., Sci Immunol 2019) mediante trattamento PV-10, (iii) dimostrare il funzionamento
Risposta delle cellule T generata dal trattamento PV-10 e (iii) contrasto e confronto del trattamento PV-10: sicurezza, attività e induzione
risposta immunitaria – con quella dell'inibizione del checkpoint immunitario (“CI”) e di altre classi di farmaci in monoterapia e
Impostazioni della terapia di combinazione basata su PV-10.

Questo
la strategia può accelerare l'avanzamento del PV-10 a singolo agente lungo un percorso di approvazione nelle indicazioni del tumore solido tumorale dove
c'è un alto bisogno insoddisfatto, attività limitata da altre terapie e l'opportunità di mostrare la risposta immunitaria da PV-10
trattamento, come i tumori neuroendocrini (“NET”) metastatici al fegato (“mNET”) (NCT02693067).
Questa strategia può anche consentire alla Società di sviluppare e far progredire una terapia di associazione del cancro che coinvolga uno o più CI e / o
altre classi di farmaci lungo un percorso di approvazione in un'indicazione di malattia in cui vi è un alto bisogno insoddisfatto, attività limitata dalla norma
di cura (“SOC”) e l'opportunità di mostrare come il PV-10 aumenta la risposta clinica all'esistente o emergente
SOC, come il melanoma uveale metastatico al fegato (“mamma”) (ovvero terapia di associazione con un agente anti-CTLA-4
e un agente anti-PD-1) (NCT00986661).

Nostro
Strategia di sviluppo di farmaci per la dermatologia

Il
La strategia della società è quella di (i) dimostrare la dimostrazione del concetto di amministrazione di 12 settimane (“POC”) per PH-10
che include (a) uno studio preclinico sulla sicurezza della somministrazione prolungata di 12 settimane (rispetto a, precedentemente, quattro settimane), (b) un
meccanismo di studio dell'azione sulla dermatite atopica, che sarebbe una sperimentazione “fine libro” per la clinica già completata
studio del meccanismo nella psoriasi, (c) studi controllati randomizzati di fase 2 su PH-10 per il trattamento della psoriasi e della dermatite atopica
che potrebbero potenzialmente utilizzare i comparatori SOC e (d) incontri di fine fase 2 con la FDA al completamento di quanto sopra
Studi di fase 2 e (ii) espandere il trattamento POC PH-10 per includere la terapia di combinazione dermatologica. Il nostro obiettivo per questo lavoro POC è
ottenere lo stato di fase 3 pronto per la sperimentazione di PH-10 sia nella psoriasi che nella dermatite atopica.

Prodotto
Tubatura

Oncologia
(PV-10)

Melanoma
(Agente singolo)

Completato
    Studi di fase 1 e 2 (NCT00219843 e NCT00521053, rispettivamente).
Orfano
    lo stato di designazione della droga (“ODD”) è stato concesso dalla Food and Drug Administration (la “FDA”) degli Stati Uniti per
melanoma metastatico.
Nel
    2019, ha terminato uno studio di fase 3 (NCT02288897).
Nel
    2019, risultati di uno studio a centro singolo condotto dallo sperimentatore e condotto su pazienti con melanoma in transito (“ITM”)
    ricevere infusione di arti isolati amministrati a livello regionale (“ILI”) o PV-10 per valutare e confrontare l'effetto
    di questi trattamenti sulla sopravvivenza da parte dei principali investigatori presso il Princess Alexandra Hospital di Brisbane, in Australia (dove
    l'infusione isolata degli arti rappresenta lo standard storico di cura per ITM e PV-10 è stato usato per trattare la malattia in fase di espansione
    accesso) è stato pubblicato: Read et al. I pazienti con metastasi di melanoma in transito hanno risultati comparabili di sopravvivenza seguenti
    infusione di arti isolati o PV-10 intralesionale: un punteggio di propensione abbinato, studio a centro singolo. J Surg Oncol.
    2019
.

Melanoma
e tumori della pelle non melanoma (terapia di combinazione)

Con
    Farmaco CI KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab)
– Studio in corso di fase 1b / 2 per melanoma metastatico (Stadio III-IV) (NCT02557321);
    nel 2019, noi:

Segnalato
    dati aggiornati del gruppo principale di pazienti naïve alle CI durante gli incontri annuali dell'American Society of Clinical
    Oncologia (“ASCO”), inclusa la sopravvivenza libera da progressione preliminare (PFS) e i cambiamenti nelle popolazioni di cellule T.
    (Agarwala et al., ASCO 2019) e Society for Melanoma Research (“SMR”), inclusi complessivamente 12 mesi
    tassi di sopravvivenza (“OS”) e di sopravvivenza specifica per malattia (“DSS”) e OS e DSS mediani (Agarwala et
    al., SMR 2019
),
Continua
    arruolare pazienti in una coorte di espansione di pazienti refrattari alla CI,
Segnalato
    dati preliminari della coorte di espansione di pazienti refrattari alla CI con SMR, compresa la risposta obiettiva e il controllo della malattia
    tassi (“ORR” e “DCR”, rispettivamente) e variazioni nei biomarcatori di attivazione del sistema immunitario (Zager
    et al., SMR 2019
), e
Continua
    arruolare pazienti in una coorte di espansione di pazienti con malattia satellite o in transito. Questi pazienti sono in genere naïve alla CI.

gastrointestinale
Tumori (agente singolo)

in corso
    Studio di basket di fase 1 sul carcinoma epatocellulare (“HCC”) e altri tumori solidi metastatici al fegato (NCT00986661);
    ad oggi, i pazienti hanno ricevuto PV-10 tramite somministrazione percutanea in diversi tipi di tumore epatico, tra cui
    HCC, carcinoma del colon-retto, carcinoma polmonare, melanoma cutaneo, melanoma uveale, carcinoma mammario, carcinoma ovarico e carcinoma pancreatico.
FDA
    È stato concesso lo stato ODD HCC.
Nel
    2019, stato FDA ODD concesso melanoma oculare (incluso melanoma uveale).
in corso
    Studio di fase 1 del MNET sintomatico (NCT02693067); nel 2019, noi:

Continua
    per iscriversi alla Seconda Coorte, e
Segnalato
    dati preliminari della prima coorte di ASCO, inclusi ORR e DCR a livello di lesione e risposte e qualità della cromogranina A
    dei punteggi di vita (Price et al., ASCO 2019).

gastrointestinale
Tumori (terapia di combinazione)

Con
    Combinazione CI di YERVOY® (ipilimumab) e OPDIVO® (nivolumab)
– Studio di basket di fase 1 in corso su HCC e
    altri tumori solidi metastatici al fegato (NCT00986661); nel 2019:

Continua
    per arruolare pazienti nella coorte a sito singolo di pazienti con MUM trattati con PV-10 a agente singolo, le terapie combinate di
    PV-10 + KEYTRUDA o PV-10 + OPDIVO o la terapia combinata di PV-10, YERVOY e OPDIVO e
Segnalato
    dati aggiornati sulla terapia di combinazione basata su un singolo agente PV-10 e PV-10 di melanoma uveale alla European Society for Medical del 2019
    Congresso di immuno-oncologia di oncologia (“ESMO”) (“ESMO I-O”), compresi ORR e DCR a livello di lesione (Patel
    et al., ESMO I-O 2019
) e ORR e PFS a livello di paziente (Carter et al., ESMO I-O 2019).

pediatrico
Tumori (terapia con agenti singoli e in associazione)

in corso
    valutazione non clinica delle linee cellulari tumorali di tumore pediatrico da parte degli investigatori di terapia pediatrica oncologica sperimentale ”
    Consorzio (“POETIC”); nel 2019:

risultati
    dal lavoro preclinico di POETIC su in vitro e studi su modelli di tumore animale di PV-10 per il trattamento della recidiva
    e il neuroblastoma refrattario è stato pubblicato: Swift et al. Potente attività antitumorale in vitro e xenotrapianto di un nuovo agente,
    PV-10, contro il neuroblastoma recidivo e refrattario
. Onco Targets Ther. 2019.
FDA
    ODD è stato concesso per neuroblastoma.

Dermatologia
(PH-10)

Tossicologia

Completato
                                         studi non clinici a singola somministrazione per dimostrare la mancanza di assorbimento sistemico,
                                         come parte del lavoro tossicologico a supporto della somministrazione estesa di 12 settimane.

Psoriasi

Completato
    Studio randomizzato di fase 2c della psoriasi da lieve a moderata (NCT01247818).
Completato
    Meccanismo d'azione di fase 2d della psoriasi da lieve a moderata (NCT02322086).

atopica
Dermatite

Completato
    Studio di fase 2 di dermatite atopica lieve, moderata o grave (NCT00690807).

Oncologia
(PV-10)

Stiamo sviluppando PV-10 per l'iniezione diretta
nei tumori come immunoterapia autolitica, dove (a) le cellule tumorali nei tumori iniettati muoiono per auto-digestione (cioè autolitica
morte), che attivano il sistema immunitario innato e (b) una risposta immunitaria specifica del tumore può derivare a valle
attivazione del sistema immunitario adattivo (cioè immunoterapia).

localmente
Melanoma avanzato e ampiamente metastatico

UN
studio controllato randomizzato di fase 3 pivotale di PV-10 come trattamento con agente singolo per melanoma cutaneo localmente avanzato (fase
IIIB-IV M1a), rispetto alla terapia standard (cioè scelta dello sperimentatore di terapia virale oncolitica o chemioterapia sistemica),
aperto alle iscrizioni nel 2015 (NCT02288897). L'outcome primario dello studio era la sopravvivenza libera da progressione (“PFS”)
valutato ogni 12 settimane per un massimo di 18 mesi. Le misure di risultato secondarie includono il tasso di risposta completa (“CR”) e
la sua durata e il sistema operativo, tutti valutati ogni 12 settimane fino a 18 mesi. Nell'ottobre 2019, abbiamo terminato il processo a causa di un inadeguato
tasso di iscrizione, che era dovuto in gran parte alla terapia sistemica con CI raccomandato negli Stati Uniti per il melanoma in stadio III
pazienti con malattia satellitare o in transito.

Meccanismo
di azione e altri lavori precedentemente riportati dai nostri collaboratori di ricerca presso il Moffitt Cancer Center (Toomey et al., PLOS
UNO
2013
, Liu et al., Oncotarget 2016, e Pilon-Thomas et al., J Immunother Cancer 2016)
e l'Università dell'Illinois a Chicago (Qin et al., Cell Death Dis 2017) indicano che PV-10 funziona come un
immunoterapia autolitica in modelli di laboratorio di più tipi di tumore, come melanoma, carcinoma mammario, carcinoma del colon e
cancro del pancreas. Questi collaboratori classificano definitivamente il PV-10 come un'immunoterapia autolitica in grado di produrre ICD, un primer
per l'immunità adattativa, funzionante tramite più cellule effettrici immunitarie, tra cui cellule T CD8 +, cellule dendritiche e killer naturale
Cellule T. Entro la fine del 2019, erano in corso ulteriori meccanismi per valutare la potenziale ampiezza di questa capacità di immunoterapia
in altri tipi di tumore.

Nel
Gennaio 2019, i principali investigatori del Princess Alexandra Hospital hanno pubblicato i risultati di un ricercatore concepito e
studio a centro singolo condotto su pazienti ITM che hanno ricevuto ILI amministrato a livello regionale o PV-10 intratumorale per valutare e confrontare
l'effetto di questi trattamenti sulla sopravvivenza, tra cui:

Baseline
e caratteristiche della malattia:

pazienti
    abbinato per le covariate chiave: età, sesso, sede della malattia primaria e spessore di Breslow,
ILI:
    36 pazienti; 56% uomini; età media di 76,5 anni (intervallo interquartile 69-83); 100% Stage IIB / IIIC e
PV-10:
    36 pazienti; 56% uomini; età media di 74,5 anni (65-81); 89% Stadio IIV / IIIC (11% Stadio IV).

Trattamento
risposta (migliore risposta globale a livello di paziente (“BORR”)):

ILI:
    22% CR e 50% ORR e
PV-10:
    25% CR e 83% ORR.

ILI
risultati di sopravvivenza:

Mediano
    PFS di 5,0 mesi (intervallo interquartile 2.7-10.7),
Mediano
    sopravvivenza libera da malattia (“DFS”) di 16,5 mesi (8,9-48,4),
Mediano
    OS di 29,7 mesi (12,3-88,5) e
Mediano
    sopravvivenza specifica al melanoma (“MSS”) di 74,4 mesi (24,3-NA); Tassi MSS a 12, 24, 36 e 60 mesi dell'85%, 75%,
    e il 60%, rispettivamente.

PV-10
risultati di sopravvivenza:

Mediano
    PFS di 3,9 mesi (9,6-47,9),
Mediano
    DFS di 14,1 mesi (4,5-20,9),
Mediano
    OS di 27,1 mesi (14,3-48,6),
Mediano
    MSS di 36,4 mesi (16.6-65.3); Tassi MSS a 12, 24, 36 e 60 mesi rispettivamente dell'83%, 70%, 54% e 36% e
differenze
    in PFS, DFS e MSS il confronto tra ILI e PV-10 non era statisticamente significativo.

Per
quei pazienti con melanoma più avanzato che non è completamente accessibile per iniezione (Stadio IV), stiamo valutando PV-10 in combinazione
con CI in uno studio clinico di fase 1b / 2. Questo studio è il risultato di un meccanismo d'azione sul PV-10 che dimostra che può essere complementare
a CI. Dati aggiornati dalla porzione di studio di Fase 1b completamente arruolata di 21 pazienti naïve alla CI sono stati riportati all'annuale SMR
incontro a novembre 2019, tra cui:

Baseline
    caratteristica: età media di 69 anni (intervallo 28-82),
Malattia
    caratteristiche: 52% Stadio IV M1b-c; mediana di 2 lesioni iniettabili (range 1-15); la maggior parte dei pazienti presentava sostanziale non iniettato
    carico di malattia sistemica,
Trattamento
    riepilogo: i pazienti hanno ricevuto una mediana di 5 cicli di PV-10 (media 3,8, intervallo 1-5) e una mediana di 5 iniezioni totali di PV-10
    (media 11.7, intervallo 1-82); PV-10 non è stato somministrato dopo la settimana 12,
Sicurezza:
    Gli eventi avversi erano coerenti con i modelli stabiliti per l'uso da parte di un singolo agente di ciascun farmaco; principalmente grado 1-2
    reazioni nel sito di iniezione a PV-10; principalmente reazioni immunomediate di grado 1-3 a KEYTRUDA,
iniettato
    efficacia della lesione target (BORR): 75% CR, 79% ORR e 86% DCR per 28 lesioni iniettate in 21 pazienti; 85% CR e 92% DCR per
    13 lesioni iniettate in 11 pazienti M1b-c,
Complessivamente
    efficacia del paziente (BORR, RECIST 1.1): 10% CR e 67% ORR per 21 pazienti; 9% CR e 82% ORR per pazienti M1b-c, e
durata:
    95% tasso di 12 mesi del sistema operativo; Tasso DSS del 12% al 100%; OS e DSS mediani non sono stati raggiunti; PFS mediana di 11,7 mesi.

Noi
ha ampliato lo studio di Fase 1b nel 2018 per includere una prima coorte di espansione di un massimo di 24 pazienti con melanoma avanzato (Stadio III-IV)
che sono refrattari alla CI e una seconda coorte di espansione di un massimo di 24 pazienti con malattia satellite o in transito. Entrambe le espansioni
le coorti continuano ad arruolare pazienti. Dati preliminari di 10 pazienti refrattari alla CI sono stati riportati nella stessa riunione annuale SMR,
Compreso:

Baseline
    caratteristica: età media di 77 anni (intervallo 54-90); rispetto all'età media di 69 anni (range 28-62) dell'ingenuo CI
    coorte,
Malattia
    caratteristiche: 50% Stadio IV M1b-d; Il 50% dei pazienti era refrattario all'inibizione del checkpoint a singolo agente e doppio agente
    trattamento (KEYTRUDA, YERVOY o OPDIVO e YERVOY),
Trattamento
    sommario: PV-10 era limitato a 5 cicli,
Sicurezza:
    Gli eventi avversi erano coerenti con i modelli stabiliti per l'uso da parte di un singolo agente di ciascun farmaco; 1 paziente ritirato a causa
    a una reazione avversa a KEYTRUDA,
Complessivamente
    efficacia del paziente (BORR, RECIST 1.1): 20% ORR e 40% DCR; 2 pazienti su 10 non sono stati valutati (“NEV”),
durata:
    OS mediano e DSS non sono stati raggiunti; PFS mediana di 4,9 mesi e
I cambiamenti
    nei biomarcatori del sangue periferico: i primi risultati correlativi per questi pazienti refrattari con inibizione del checkpoint elevato erano
    in linea con l'evidenza precedente di attivazione immunitaria da parte del PV-10 in pazienti naïve all'inibizione del checkpoint, entrambi come agente singolo
    e in combinazione con KEYTRUDA; I pazienti refrattari alla CI trattati con terapia di combinazione a base di PV-10 presentavano un danno associato
    Profilo del modello molecolare (“DAMP”) simile al profilo DAMP dei pazienti naïve alla CI che ricevono un singolo agente
    PV-10 (NCT01760499).

Ricerca
i collaboratori hanno pubblicato i risultati di uno studio che ha studiato la terapia di associazione del cancro con PV-10 e inibizione del checkpoint (anti-CTLA-4,
anticorpi anti-PD-1 e anti-PD-L1) nei modelli di melanoma murino (Liu et al., PLOS ONE 2018) e ha anche esaminato il
ruolo delle popolazioni di cellule immunitarie specifiche nel suscitare e controllare la risposta specifica del tumore. Gli autori hanno mostrato l'impatto di
combinando l'inibizione del checkpoint con la risposta immunitaria specifica del tumore indotta da PV-10. Trattamento con anticorpo PV-10 e anti-PD-1
ha provocato un ritardo nella crescita tumorale e un aumento dell'attivazione delle cellule T in un modello tumorale di melanoma M05. Sono stati osservati effetti simili
con anticorpo PV-10 e anti-PD-L1 in un modello tumorale B16. L'effetto della terapia di combinazione con blocco PV-10 e PD-1 è mediato
da parte delle cellule T CD8 + e l'esaurimento delle cellule T CD4 + o CD4 + CD25 + Tregs ha migliorato l'immunità antitumorale nel modello di melanoma M05.
Effetti simili sono stati osservati anche con l'anticorpo PV-10 e anti-CTLA-4 nel modello tumorale B16.

gastrointestinale
Tumori

Durante il 2019, abbiamo continuato il nostro esplorativo
Studio di fase 1 sui tumori del fegato. Questo “basket basket” arruola pazienti con carcinoma epatocellulare e altri tipi di tumore che hanno
metastatizzato al fegato. I pazienti vengono trattati usando l'iniezione percutanea di PV-10 sotto la guida di immagini in uno o spostare
lesioni al fegato. Ad oggi pazienti con carcinoma epatico e metastasi epatiche, inclusi melanoma cutaneo, polmonare, mammario, cutaneo,
melanoma uveale, ovarico e pancreatico, sono stati trattati nei cinque centri. Segnalato il meccanismo non clinico del lavoro d'azione
di Qin et al. era coerente con le osservazioni cliniche riportate per i pazienti con carcinoma del colon-retto metastatico partecipanti
nel nostro studio sul basket di Fase 1.

Nel 2018, abbiamo annunciato che lo studio di fase 1
si era espanso per includere una coorte a sito singolo di pazienti con mamma. I pazienti con mamma ammissibili possono anche ricevere un checkpoint standard di assistenza
blocco durante e dopo il trattamento con PV-10. I dati aggiornati di questa coorte sono stati riportati alla riunione I-O dell'ESMO
nel dicembre 2019, tra cui:

Baseline
    caratteristiche: 46% uomini; età media di 61 anni; LDH elevato del 46%,
Malattia
    caratteristiche: 100% Stadio IV M1a-b; Il 38% dei pazienti era refrattario a una o più precedenti linee di trattamento, con il 31%
    ha ricevuto un'immunoterapia precedente,
Trattamento
    riassunto: 7 pazienti hanno ricevuto 1 ciclo di PV-10; 6 pazienti hanno ricevuto 2 cicli; 26 tumori sono stati iniettati con PV-10,
Combinazione
    terapia: 9 pazienti hanno ricevuto standard concomitanti di blocco del checkpoint di cura (vale a dire, mantenimento anti-PD-1, anti-PD-1 successivo
    al trattamento PV-10 o anti-CTLA-4 + anti-PD-1 dopo il trattamento PV-10),
Sicurezza:
    3 casi di transaminite di grado 3/4 che si sono risolti in grado 1 o superiore entro 72 ore; ulteriori eventi correlati al grado 1 PV-10
    visto in 1 paziente ciascuno comprendeva feci rosa, urine rosa, fotosensibilità, dolore nel sito di iniezione e iperbilirubinemia; addizionale
    sono stati attribuiti eventi avversi come nausea, mal di testa, mialgie, visione sfocata, riduzione dei globuli bianchi e affaticamento
    al concomitante blocco del checkpoint e
Preliminare
    efficacia della lesione target iniettata: 32% ORR e 82% DCR.

Nel febbraio 2019 è stata concessa la Società
FDA ODD per PV-10 per il trattamento di per il trattamento del melanoma oculare (per includere tutte le malattie del melanoma incluso quello
colpisce l'occhio e l'orbita). La FDA concede lo stato ODD ai medicinali destinati al trattamento, alla diagnosi o alla prevenzione di
malattie rare o disturbi che colpiscono meno di 200.000 persone negli Stati Uniti. Lo stato ODD qualifica le aziende per i vantaggi che includono
sette anni di esclusività del mercato a seguito dell'approvazione all'immissione in commercio, crediti d'imposta su studi clinici statunitensi, ammissibilità al farmaco orfano
sovvenzioni e rinuncia a determinate spese amministrative.

Nel 2017 abbiamo iniziato l'attività clinica
in uno studio di Fase 1 per valutare il PV-10 come immunoterapia autolitica per pazienti con MNET sintomatica presso The Queen Elizabeth
Ospedale di Adelaide, in Australia. Questo studio utilizza un protocollo di trattamento paragonabile a quello impiegato nel fegato di Fase 1
studio sul canestro del cancro. Poiché lo studio NET si concentra su un singolo tipo di tumore, include il sangue radiologico (imaging medico)
biomarker e valutazioni della qualità della vita specifiche di NET. I dati aggiornati sono stati segnalati alla riunione annuale dell'ASCO nel giugno 2019,
Compreso:

Baseline
    caratteristiche: 67% uomini; età media di 65 anni (intervallo 47-72),
Malattia
    caratteristiche: sito tumorale primario – 50% intestino tenue, 33% pancreas e 17% cecale; 87% di grado 2 (ben differenziato,
    intermedio); tutti i pazienti erano refrattari agli analoghi della somatostatina sistemica e alla terapia con radionuclidi del recettore peptidico,
PV-10
    riepilogo del trattamento: mediana di 1 ciclo (media 1,7, intervallo 1-4) e dose mediana per ciclo di 2,1 ml (intervallo 1,0-5,8 ml),
Preliminare
    safety: Acceptable toxicity (e.g., post-procedure pain, carcinoid flare, nausea); liver function tests have remained stable,
Preliminary
    target lesion efficacy: 50% objective response and 87% disease control; response follow-up in 3 patients (50%) is ongoing,
    e
Preliminary
    clinical and biomarker outcomes: overall quality of life scores were stable in 5 patients (87%); Chromogranin A responses
    were stable in 5 patients (87%).

Pediatric
Cancers

Nel
December 2016, we announced a joint research agreement with POETIC to investigate the potential of PV-10 for pediatric cancers.
This collaboration involves National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers that are part of the POETIC group such as Memorial
Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Alberta Children’s Hospital, and other cancer centers.

In February 2019, POETIC researchers
published preclinical work on in vitro and animal tumor model studies of PV-10 for the treatment of relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma:
Swift et al. Potent in vitro and xenograft antitumor activity of a novel agent, PV-10, against relapsed and refractory
neuroblastoma. Onco Targets Ther. 2019. According to the POETIC authors,

“Our studies provide preclinical proof-of-concept data on the efficacy of PV-10 in neuroblastoma. Mechanistically,
we have found that PV-10 acts by disrupting lysosomes, inducing cell cycle changes and initiating cell death by apoptosis. Noi
have also identified several commonly used treatments with which PV-10 shows synergistic anti-tumor activity. Furthermore, we
have validated the efficacy of PV-10 in vivo, using neuroblastoma xenograft mouse experiments. Our experiments, carried out in
representative cell lines and in tumor bearing mice, provide evidence for the direct cytotoxic potential of PV-10, as well as
mechanisms by which this agent may induce target modulatory effects in cancer cells. We have also identified agents that can be
combined to generate treatment synergy, providing the framework for the formulation of early phase clinical trials. This, in addition
to the expected immunostimulatory effect of PV-10 described previously, provides support for a potential approach where a PV-10
backbone regimen can be combined with agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors to further enhance its activity in patients
with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.”

Among the authors’ results, PV-10 was
shown to be cytotoxic to neuroblastoma cell lines, to disrupt tumor lysosomes, to induce both apoptosis
and necrosis in neuroblastoma, to be synergistic with multiple standard anticancer agents, to induce radiosensitivity
in neuroblastoma cell lines, and to lead to tumor regression in vivo.

Dermatology
(PH-10)

Noi
are developing PH-10, an aqueous hydrogel formulation of rose bengal disodium, for topical administration to the skin for inflammatory
dermatoses such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

In January 2015, we commenced a mechanism
of action study of PH-10 to characterize its immunologic signaling aspects, safety, and efficacy. The clinical portion of this
study was completed in January 2016. Advanced immunologic profiling of clinical samples obtained from that work was completed
in June 2017 and data were reported at Psoriasis Gene to Clinic in London, England in November 2017 (Krueger et al.). These
data demonstrated downregulation of more than 500 disease-related genes, including central “psoriasis-related” genes
that were normalized to levels consistent with non-lesional skin, and established that PH-10 has a novel mechanism of action in
inflammatory dermatoses.

Work began in support of extended 12-week
administration (proof-of-concept or POC) for PH-10. In 2018, we finished two toxicology-focused, non-clinical, single administration
studies using 14C-labeled Rose Bengal to demonstrate lack of systemic uptake. Radio-labeled Rose Bengal is easier to detect in
plasma and tissues at very low levels than Rose Bengal itself. These data suggest there is minimal potential of systemic, distant
target organ effects from topical application of PH-10. The goal of a planned, non-clinical, toxicology-focused, 12-week administration
study is to demonstrate local effects in the skin from the extended use of PH-10 and identify any potential systemic toxicities.
When completed, the 12-week POC program may allow for direct comparison of PH-10 to approved topical treatments for psoriasis
and atopic dermatitis.

Research
and Development

Our approach to drug development in oncology
comprises two related, complementary, clinical program paths based on the features of our respective investigational drugs
and their clinically-rational applicability to different patient populations. In solid tumor cancers for adults, for example,
we believe PV-10 has important implications as a single-agent for earlier states of disease (e.g., locally advanced disease; Stage
III or earlier), while the combination of PV-10 with other classes of therapy (e.g., immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy,
targeted therapy) is more appropriate for advanced disease states (e.g., widely metastatic disease; Stage IV). In both paths,
direct delivery of PV-10 to cancerous tumor (i.e., intratumoral delivery) maximizes local therapeutic potential while minimizing
potential for toxicity in normal tissue.

Our approach to drug development in dermatology
comprises a similar approach, where direct delivery of PH-10 to diseased tissue (i.e., topical delivery) maximizes local therapeutic
potential while minimizing potential for toxicity in normal tissue.

We believe these approaches optimize potential
value in the single-agent setting while providing favorable pharmacologic properties for the use of PV-10 or PH-10, respectively,
in combination with other systemic therapies.

Intellectual
Property (“IP”)

U.S.
Patents

We hold a number of patents covering the technologies
we have developed and are continuing to develop for the production of investigational drugs and other technologies. All patents
material to an understanding of the Company are included below, and a cross reference to a discussion that explains the patent
technologies and products is identified for certain patents in the following table:

U.S.
    Patent No.
Title
    and Cross Reference
Issue
    Data
Expiration
    Data
7,201,914 Combination
    antiperspirant and antimicrobial compositions; see discussion under Over-the-Counter Pharmaceuticals in Description of Business
aprile
    10, 2007
May
    15, 2024
8,470,296 Improved
    intracorporeal medicaments for high energy photodynamic treatment of disease; see discussion under Dermatology in Description
    of Business
June
    25, 2013
July
    28, 2022
8,530,675 Processi
    for the synthesis of rose bengal and related xanthenes; see discussion under Oncology in Description of Business
September
    10, 2013
aprile
    21, 2031

9,107,887 Combination
    therapy for cancer; see discussion under Oncology in Description of Business
August
    15, 2015
March
    9, 2032
9,273,022 Processi
    for the synthesis of rose bengal and related xanthenes; see discussion under Oncology in Description of Business
March
    1, 2016
September
    17, 2030
9,422,260 Processi
    for the synthesis of rose bengal and related xanthenes; see discussion under Oncology in Description of Business
August
    23, 2016
September
    26, 2030
9,808,524 Combination
    of local and systematic immunomodulative therapies for melanoma and liver cancer
November
    7, 2017
June
    24, 2035
9,839,688

Combination
                                         of rose bengal and systemic immunomodulative therapies for enhanced treatment
                                         of cancer

December
    12, 2017
June
    24, 2035
10,130,658 Method
    of ex vivo enhancement of immune cell activity for cancer immunotherapy with a small molecule ablative compound
November
    20, 2018
November
    20, 2036
10,471,144 Combination
    of local rose bengal and systemic immunomodulative therapies for enhanced treatment of cancer
November
    12, 2019
November
    12 2034

New
U.S. Patents

Nel
2019, we received U.S. patent no. 10,471,144, entitled “Combination of local rose bengal and systemic immunomodulative therapies
for enhanced treatment of cancer.”

Competition

In general, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology
industries are competitive, characterized by steady and sometimes disruptive advances in products and technology. Un numero
of companies have developed and continue to develop products that address the areas we have targeted. Some of these companies
are pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies that are international in scope and very large in size, while others
are small companies that have been successful in one or more areas we are targeting. Existing or future pharmaceutical, device,
or other competitors may develop products that accomplish similar functions to our technologies in ways that may be less expensive,
receive faster regulatory approval, or receive greater market acceptance than our products. Many of our competitors have been
in existence longer than we have, have greater capital resources, broader internal structure for research, development, manufacturing
and marketing, and may be further along in their respective product cycles.

Federale
Regulation of Therapeutic Products

Tutti
of the prescription drug candidates we currently contemplate developing will require approval by the FDA prior to sales within
the U.S. and by comparable international governmental healthcare regulatory agencies prior to sale outside the U.S. The FDA and
comparable international agencies impose substantial requirements on the manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products.
These agencies and other entities regulate, among other things, research and development activities and the testing, manufacturing,
quality control, safety and effectiveness claims, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising, and promotion of our
prescription drug candidates. While we attempt to minimize and avoid significant regulatory bars when formulating our products,
some degree of regulation from these regulatory agencies is unavoidable.

The regulatory process required by the FDA, through which our prescription
drug candidates must successfully pass before they may be marketed in the U.S., generally involves pre-clinical laboratory and
animal testing, submission of an application that must become effective before clinical trials may begin, adequate and well-controlled
human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product for its intended indication, and FDA approval to market
a given product for a given indication after the appropriate application has been filed. For pharmaceutical products, pre-clinical
tests include laboratory evaluation of the product, its chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as in vitro and animal
studies to assess the potential safety and efficacy of the product. We will require sponsored work to be conducted in compliance
with pertinent local and international regulatory requirements, including those providing for Institutional Review Board approval,
national governing agency approval, and patient informed consent, using protocols consistent with ethical principles stated in
the Declaration of Helsinki and other internationally recognized standards and delineated by the International Council on Harmonisation
(“ICH”) Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”) standards.

Se
the FDA is satisfied with the results and data from pre-clinical tests, it will authorize human clinical trials. Human clinical
trials traditionally are conducted in three sequential phases which may overlap. Each of the three phases involves testing and
study of specific aspects of the effects of the investigational product on human subjects, including testing for safety, dosage
tolerance, side effects, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion, and clinical efficacy.

Phase 1 clinical trials include the initial introduction of an investigational
new drug into humans, or via a new route of administration or new organ system if previously investigated in humans. These studies
are closely monitored and may be conducted in patients but may also be conducted in healthy volunteer subjects. These studies are
designed to determine the metabolic and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing
doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. While the FDA can cause us to end clinical trials at any phase
due to safety concerns, Phase 1 clinical trials are primarily concerned with safety issues. We also attempt to obtain sufficient
information about the drug candidate’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects during Phase 1 clinical trials to permit
the design of scientifically valid, Phase 2 studies.

Phase
1 studies also evaluate drug metabolism, structure-activity relationships, and the mechanism of action in humans. These studies
also determine which investigational drugs are used as research tools to explore biological phenomena or disease processes. Il
total number of subjects included in Phase 1 studies varies with the drug but is generally in the range of 10 to 80.

Phase 2 clinical trials include early controlled
clinical studies conducted to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications
in patients with the disease or condition. This phase of testing also helps determine the common short-term side effects and risks
associated with the drug. Phase 2 studies are often randomized controlled studies that are closely monitored and
conducted in a relatively small number of patients, usually involving up to several hundred people.

Phase 3 studies are expanded controlled and
uncontrolled trials. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained in Phase
2 and are intended to gather definitive information about effectiveness and safety that is needed to evaluate the overall
benefit-risk relationship of the drug. Phase 3 studies also provide an adequate basis for extrapolating the results to the general
population and transmitting that information in the physician labeling. Phase 3 studies usually include several hundred to several
thousand people.

Noi
have established a core clinical development team and have been working with external and FDA-experienced consultants to assist
us in developing product-specific development and approval strategies, preparing the required submittals, guiding us through the
regulatory process, and providing input into the design and site selection of human clinical studies.

Il
testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort, and financial resources, and we may not obtain FDA approval on
a timely basis, if at all. Success in preclinical or early-stage clinical trials does not assure success in later-stage clinical
trials. The FDA or research institution conducting the trials may suspend clinical trials or may not permit trials to advance
from one phase to another at any time for various reasons, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed
to an unacceptable health risk. Once issued, the FDA may withdraw a prescription drug approval if we do not comply with pertinent
regulatory requirements and standards or if problems are identified after the product reaches the market. If the FDA grants approval
of a prescription drug candidate, the approval may impose limitations, including limits on the indicated uses for which we may
market a drug product. In addition, the FDA may require additional testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety and/or
effectiveness of approved drug products that have been commercialized, and the agency has the power to prevent or limit further
marketing of a product based on the results of these post-marketing programs. Further, later discovery of previously unknown problems
with a drug product may result in restrictions on the product, including withdrawal from the market.

Marketing
our prescription drug candidates abroad will require similar regulatory approvals by equivalent national authorities and is subject
to similar risks. To expedite development, we may pursue some or all of our initial clinical testing and approval activities outside
the U.S., and in particular in those countries where our prescription drug candidates may have substantial medical and commercial
relevance. In some such cases, any resulting drug products may be brought to the U.S. after substantial offshore experience is
gained. Accordingly, we intend to pursue any such development in a manner consistent with U.S. and ICH standards so that the resultant
development data is maximally applicable for potential global approval.

Management
Changes

On
March 25, 2019, the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) named Heather Raines, CPA as Chief Financial
Officer (“CFO”). On May 9, 2019, the Board named Bruce Horowitz as Chief Operating Officer (“COO”).

Employees

Noi
have two full-time employees. We also engage independent contractors, who currently serve as COO, director of clinical operations,
senior scientist, clinical research associates, project manager, information technology manager, controller, patient advocacy
manager, and database manager.

Available
Information

Our
website is located at www.provectusbio.com. We make available free of charge through this website our annual reports on
Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed with or furnished
to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”),
as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Reference to our website does
not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the site and should not be considered part of this document.

Il
SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers
that file electronically with the SEC as we do. The website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our
business and its future performance may be affected by various factors, the most significant of which are discussed below.

Noi
are a clinical-stage drug company, have no prescription drug products approved for commercial sale, have incurred substantial
losses, and expect to incur substantial losses and negative operating cash flow for the foreseeable future.

Noi
are a clinical-stage drug company that has no prescription drug products approved for commercial sale. We have never generated
any substantial revenues and may never achieve substantial revenues or profitability. As of December 31, 2019, we have incurred
net losses of approximately $234 million in the aggregate since inception in January 2002. We expect to incur substantial losses
and negative operating cash flow for the foreseeable future. We may never achieve or maintain profitability, even if we succeed
in developing and commercializing one or more of our prescription drug candidates. We also expect to continue to incur significant
operating expenditures and anticipate that our operating and capital expenses may increase substantially in the foreseeable future
as we continue to develop and seek regulatory approval for our prescription drug candidates PV-10 and PH-10, implement additional
internal systems and infrastructure, and hire additional personnel.

Noi
also expect to experience negative operating cash flow for the foreseeable future as we fund our operating losses and any future
capital expenditures. As a result, we will need to generate significant revenues in order to achieve and maintain profitability.
We may not be able to generate these revenues or achieve profitability in the future. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability
could negatively impact the value of our common stock.

Noi
need additional capital to conduct our operations and commercialize and/or further develop our prescription drug candidates in
2020 and beyond, and our ability to obtain the necessary funding is uncertain.

We need additional capital in 2020 and beyond
to continue developing and seeking to commercialize our drug product candidates. We intend to continue with the development of
PV-10 and PH-10 on the basis of historical, ongoing, and prospective clinical study and/mechanism, of action results.

Noi
have based our estimate of capital needs on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we cannot assure you that estimates and
assumptions will remain unchanged. On March 19, 2017, we entered into an exclusive Definitive Financing Commitment Term Sheet
with a group of our stockholders (the “PRH Group”), which was amended and restated effective as of March 19, 2017
(the “2017 Term Sheet”), which sets forth the terms on which such investors will use their best efforts to provide
financing to the Company in the minimum amount of $10 million and up to $20 million (the “2017 Financing”). On December
20, 2019, we concluded the 2017 Financing. As of December 31, 2019, we have raised $20,067,000 through the 2017 Financing.

On
December 31, 2019, our Board approved a Definitive Financing Term Sheet (the “2020 Term Sheet”), which set forth the
terms under which we will use our best efforts to arrange for financing of a maximum of $20,000,000 (the “2020 Financing”).
We intend to acquire additional funding through the 2020 Financing. We may also seek capital from public or private equity or
debt financings or other financing sources that may be available.

Come
additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. As discussed in more detail below, additional equity
financing could result in significant dilution to stockholders. Further, in the event that additional funds are obtained through
licensing or other arrangements, these arrangements may require us to relinquish rights to some of our products, product candidates,
and technologies that we would otherwise seek to develop and commercialize ourselves. If sufficient capital is not available,
we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our programs, any of which could have a material
adverse effect on our business and may impair the value of our patents and other intangible assets.

There
is substantial doubt as to our ability to continue as a going concern.

Our
cash and cash equivalents were $590,706 at December 31, 2019, compared with $50,986 at December 31, 2018. We continue to incur
significant operating losses and management expects that significant on-going operating expenditures will be necessary to successfully
implement our business plan and develop and market our products. These circumstances raise substantial doubt about our ability
to continue as a going concern for a period of one year from the date that the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere
in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are issued. Implementation of our plans and our ability to continue as a going concern will
depend upon our ability to develop PV-10 and PH-10, and to raise additional capital.

Management
believes that we have access to capital resources through possible public or private equity offerings, including the 2020 Financing,
exchange offers, debt financings, corporate collaborations or other means. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital, we will
not be able to pay our obligations as they become due.

Our
investigational drug product candidates are at an early to late stage of development and may never obtain U.S. or international
regulatory approvals required for us to commercialize our investigational drug product candidates.

Noi
will need approval of the FDA to commercialize our investigational drug product candidates in the U.S. and approvals from FDA-equivalent
regulatory authorities in international jurisdictions to commercialize our investigational drug product candidates there.

Noi
are continuing to pursue clinical development of our most advanced drug product candidates, PV-10 and PH-10, for use as treatments
for specific disease indications. The continued and further development of these drug product candidates will require significant
additional research, formulation and manufacturing development, and pre-clinical and extensive clinical testing prior to their
regulatory approval and commercialization. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of our drug product candidates may not demonstrate
the safety and efficacy necessary to obtain regulatory approvals. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have suffered significant
setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after experiencing promising results in earlier trials. Pharmaceutical products that
appear to be promising at early stages of development may not reach the market or be marketed successfully for a number of reasons,
including a product may be found to be ineffective or have harmful side effects during subsequent pre-clinical testing or clinical
trials, a product may fail to receive necessary regulatory clearance, a product may be too difficult to manufacture on a large
scale, a product may be too expensive to manufacture or market, a product may not achieve broad market acceptance, others may
hold proprietary rights that will prevent a product from being marketed, and others may market equivalent or superior products.

Satisfaction
of the FDA’s regulatory requirements typically takes many years, depends upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product
candidate and requires substantial resources for research, development and testing. We cannot predict whether our research and
clinical approaches will result in drugs that the FDA considers safe for humans and effective for indicated uses. The FDA has
substantial discretion in the drug approval process and may require us to conduct additional nonclinical and clinical testing
or to perform post-marketing studies. The approval process may also be delayed by changes in government regulation, future legislation
or administrative action or changes in FDA policy that occur prior to or during our regulatory review. Delays in obtaining regulatory
approvals may delay commercialization of, and our ability to derive revenues from, our prescription drug candidates, impose costly
procedures on us, and diminish any competitive advantages that we may otherwise enjoy.

Our
research and product development efforts may not be successfully completed and may not result in any successfully commercialized
drug products. Further, after commercial introduction of a new drug product, discovery of problems through adverse event reporting
could result in restrictions on the product, including withdrawal from the market and, in certain cases, civil or criminal penalties.

Even
if we comply with all FDA requests, we cannot be sure that we will ever obtain regulatory clearance for any of our drug product
candidates. Failure to obtain FDA approval of any of our prescription drug candidates will severely undermine our business by
reducing our number of salable drug products and, therefore, corresponding revenues.

Nel
international jurisdictions, we must receive approval from the appropriate regulatory authorities before we can commercialize
our prescription drug candidates. International regulatory approval processes generally include all of the risks associated with
the FDA approval procedures described above.

Before
obtaining regulatory approval for the sale of our drug product candidates, including PV-10 and PH-10, we must conduct additional
clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our drug product candidates. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult
to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to timing and outcome. Competition in clinical development
has made it difficult to enroll patients at an acceptable rate in some of our clinical trials. Advances in medical technology
could make our prescription drug candidates obsolete prior to completion of clinical testing. A failure of one or more of our
clinical trials may occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of pre-clinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive
of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Moreover,
pre-clinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed
their product candidates performed satisfactorily in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain
marketing approval for their products.

Noi
are currently conducting (i) a Phase 1 trial of single-agent PV-10 and PV-10-based combination therapy for HCC and other solid
tumors metastatic to the liver, (ii) a Phase 1 trial of single-agent PV-10 for symptomatic mNET, and (iii) a Phase 1b/2 combination
therapy study of PV-10 and CI for locally advanced and widely metastatic melanoma. Product candidates in later stages of clinical
trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy characteristics despite having progressed satisfactorily through pre-clinical
studies and initial clinical testing. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including those
with greater resources and experience, have suffered significant setbacks in Phase 3 clinical development, even after seeing promising
results in earlier clinical trials.

Our
research and development expenses may increase in connection with expanding clinical trials of our product candidates in existing
indications and undertaking clinical trials of our product candidates in new indications. Because successful development of our
drug product candidates is uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds required to complete research and development
and commercialize our products under development.

Negative
or inconclusive results of our future clinical trials of PV-10 and PH-10, or any other clinical trial we conduct, could cause
the FDA to require that we repeat or conduct additional clinical studies. Despite the results reported in earlier clinical trials
for PV-10 and PH-10, we do not know whether any clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to
result in regulatory approval to market our product candidates. If later stage clinical trials do not produce favorable results,
our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, may be adversely impacted.

Delays
in clinical trials are common and have many causes, and any delay could result in increased costs to us and jeopardize or delay
our ability to obtain regulatory approval.

Our
planned or ongoing clinical trials may not begin on time, have an effective design, enroll a sufficient number of subjects, or
be completed on schedule, if at all. Events which may result in delays or unsuccessful completion of clinical trials, including
our future clinical trials, include inability to raise funding, initiate or continue a trial, delays in obtaining regulatory approval
to commence a trial, delays in reaching agreement with the FDA or other regulatory authorities on final trial design, imposition
of a clinical hold following an inspection of our clinical trial operations or trial sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities,
delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”) and clinical
trial sites, delays in obtaining required institutional review board (“IRB”) approval at each site, delays in recruiting
suitable patients to participate in a trial, delays in having subjects complete participation in a trial or return for post-treatment
follow-up, delays caused by subjects dropping out of a trial, delays caused by clinical sites dropping out of a trial, time required
to add new clinical sites or to obtain regulatory approval and open sites in geographic regions beyond the sites initially planned,
and delays by our contract manufacturers to produce and deliver sufficient supply of clinical trial materials.

In addition, we may experience a number of
unforeseen events during clinical trials for our prescription drug candidates, including PV-10 and PH-10, that could delay or
prevent the commencement and/or completion of our clinical trials, including regulators or institutional review boards may not
authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site, the clinical
study protocol may require one or more amendments delaying study completion, clinical trials of our product candidates may produce
negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon
product development programs, the number of subjects required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than
we anticipate, subjects may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate and enrollment in these clinical
trials may be significantly slower than we anticipated requiring us to expand the geographic scope of enrollment of patients,
clinical investigators or study subjects may fail to comply with clinical study protocols, trial conduct and data analysis errors
may occur, including, but not limited to, data entry and/or processing errors, our third-party contractors may fail to comply
with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all, we might have to suspend
or terminate clinical trials of our prescription drug candidates for various reasons, including a finding that the subjects are
being exposed to unacceptable health risks, regulators or institutional review boards may require that we or our investigators
suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements, the cost of
clinical trials of our prescription drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate, the supply or quality of our clinical trial
materials or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our prescription drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate,
and our prescription drug candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our
investigators to suspend or terminate the trials.

Moreover,
we or the FDA may suspend our clinical trials at any time if it appears we are exposing participants to unacceptable health risks
or if the FDA finds deficiencies in our submissions or the conduct of these trials. If initiation or completion of any of our
clinical trials for our product candidates, are delayed for any of the above reasons or other reasons, our development costs may
increase, the approval process could be delayed, any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our
prescription drug candidates may be reduced and our competitors may bring drug products to market before us. Any of these events
could impair our ability to generate revenues from drug product sales and impair our ability to generate regulatory and commercialization
milestones and royalties, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The results of our clinical trials may
not support acceptable label claims concerning our prescription drug candidates.

Even
if our clinical trials are completed as planned, we cannot be certain that their results will support acceptable label claims
concerning our drug product candidates. Success in pre-clinical testing and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical
trials will be successful, and we cannot be sure that the results of later clinical trials will replicate the results of prior
clinical trials and pre-clinical testing. The clinical trial process may fail to demonstrate that our prescription drug candidates
are safe for humans or effective for indicated uses.

This failure could cause us to abandon
a prescription drug candidate and may delay development of other prescription drug candidates. Any delay in, or termination of,
our clinical trials will delay our ability to commercialize our prescription drug candidates and generate product revenues. Nel
addition, we anticipate that our clinical trials will involve only a small patient population. Accordingly, the results of such
trials may not be indicative of future results over a larger patient population.

Physicians
and patients may not accept and use our prescription drug candidates.

Even
if the FDA approves our drug product candidates, physicians and patients may not accept and use them. Acceptance and use of our
drug products will depend upon a number of factors including perceptions by members of the healthcare community, including physicians,
about the safety and effectiveness of our drug products, availability of reimbursement for our drug products from government or
other healthcare payers, and effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and our licensees and distributors, if
any.

Perché
we expect sales or licensure of our prescription drug candidates, if approved, to generate substantially all of our revenues for
the foreseeable future, the failure of any of these drugs to find market acceptance would harm our business and could require
us to seek additional financing.

Noi
have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities for our prescription drug candidates.

Noi
currently have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to enter
into and maintain collaborative relationships, the collaborator’s strategic interest in the prescription drug products under
development and such collaborator’s ability to successfully market and sell any such drug products. There can be no assurance
that we will be able to establish or maintain relationships with third party collaborators or develop in-house sales and distribution
capabilities. To the extent that we depend on third parties for marketing and distribution, any revenues we receive will depend
upon the efforts of such third parties, and there can be no assurance that such efforts will be successful. In addition, there
can also be no assurance that we will be able to market and sell our prescription drug candidates in the U.S. or internationally.

Competition
in the prescription pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is intense.

Altro
pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and research organizations currently engage in or have in the past engaged in research
efforts related to treatment of cancer and dermatological conditions, which may compete with our clinical trials for patients
and investigator resources, cause lower enrollment than anticipated, and could lead to the development of drug products or treatment
therapies that could compete directly with our drug product candidates that we are seeking to develop and market.

Molti
companies are also developing novel therapies to treat cancer and dermatological conditions and, in this regard, are our competitors.
Many of the pharmaceutical companies developing and marketing these competing products have greater financial resources and expertise
than we do in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing.

Smaller
companies may also prove to be competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with larger and more established companies
that may compete with our efforts to establish similar collaborative arrangements. Academic institutions, government agencies,
and other public and private research organizations may also conduct research, seek patent protection, and establish collaborative
arrangements for research, clinical development, and marketing of prescription drug candidates similar to ours. These companies
and institutions compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel as well as in acquiring
technologies complementary to our drug development programs.

Nel
addition to the above factors, we expect to face competition in product efficacy and safety, the timing and scope of regulatory
consents, availability of resources, reimbursement coverage, price, and patent position, including potentially dominant patent
positions of others.

Da
our prescription drug candidates PV-10 and PH-10 have not yet been approved by the FDA or introduced to the marketplace, we cannot
estimate what competition these prescription drug candidates might face when they are finally introduced, if at all. Non possiamo
assure you that these prescription drug candidates will not face significant competition for other approved drug products, investigational
drug products, and generic equivalents.

Se
we are unable to secure or enforce patent rights, trademarks, trade secrets or other IP, our business could be harmed.

We may not be successful in securing or maintaining
proprietary patent protection for our prescription drug candidates and technologies we develop or license. In addition, our competitors
may develop prescription drug candidates similar to ours using methods and technologies that are beyond the scope of our IP protection,
which could reduce our anticipated sales. While some of our drug product candidates have proprietary patent protection, a challenge
to these patents can subject us to expensive litigation. Litigation concerning patents, other forms of IP, and proprietary technology
is becoming more widespread and can be protracted and expensive and can distract management and other personnel from performing
product development duties.

Noi
also rely upon trade secrets, unpatented proprietary know-how, and continuing technological innovation to develop a competitive
position. We cannot assure you that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary technology and
techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets and technology, or that we can adequately protect our trade secrets and
technology.

Se
we are unable to secure or enforce patent rights, trademarks, trade secrets, or other IP, our business, financial condition, results
of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. If we infringe on the IP of others, our business could be
harmed.

Noi
could be sued for infringing patents and other IP that purportedly cover prescription drug candidates and/or methods of using
such prescription drug candidates held by persons other than us. Litigation arising from an alleged infringement could result
in removal from the market, or a substantial delay in, or prevention of, the introduction of our prescription drug candidates,
any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Se
we do not update and enhance our technologies, they will become obsolete.

Il
pharmaceutical market is characterized by technological change, and our future success will depend on our ability to conduct successful
research in our fields of expertise, discover new technologies as a result of that research, develop products based on our technologies,
and commercialize those products. While we believe that our current technology is adequate for our present needs, if we fail to
stay at the forefront of technological development, we will be unable to compete effectively. Our competitors may use greater
resources to develop new pharmaceutical technologies and to commercialize products based on those technologies. Accordingly, our
technologies may be rendered obsolete by advances in existing technologies or the development of different technologies by one
or more of our current or future competitors.

Se
we lose any of our key personnel, we may be unable to successfully execute our business plan.

Our business is presently managed by key employees, independent
contractors, and Board members: (i) Bruce Horowitz, our COO, who is an independent contractor, (ii) Heather Raines, CPA, our CFO,
(iii) Dominic Rodrigues, who is vice chair of the Board, and (iv) Eric Wachter, Ph.D., our Chief Technology Officer (“CTO”).

Nel
order to successfully execute our business plan, our management and Board must succeed in all of the following critical areas:
researching diseases and possible therapies in the areas of oncology and dermatology, developing our prescription drugs candidates,
marketing and selling developed prescription drug candidates, obtaining additional capital to finance research and development
production, and marketing of our drug products, and managing our business as it grows.

Disruption
resulting from management transition may have a detrimental impact on our ability to implement our strategy. The reduction in
role and/or loss of key employees, contractors, and/or Board members could have a material adverse effect on our operations, and
limit or constrain our ability to execute our business plan.

Anti-takeover
provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition
would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could affect our stock price adversely and prevent attempts by our stockholders
to replace or remove our current management.

Our
certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes
in our board of directors that our stockholders might consider favorable. Among other things, these provisions will (i) permit
our Board to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock which can be created and issued by the Board without prior stockholder
approval, with rights senior to those of the common stock, (ii) provide that all vacancies on our Board, including as a result
of newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors
then in office, even if less than a quorum, (iii) require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be affected at
a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent, (iv) provide that stockholders seeking
to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders
must provide advance notice in writing, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice,
(v) not provide for cumulative voting rights, thereby allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled
to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, and (vi) provide that special meetings
of our stockholders may be called only by the Board or by such person or persons requested by a majority of the Board to call
such meetings.

These and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation,
bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our Board or
initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current Board, including delaying or impeding a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest
involving our company. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our Board could cause the market
price of our common stock to decline.

Our
stock price is below $5.00 per share and is treated as a “penny stock,” which places restrictions on broker-dealers
recommending the stock for purchase.

Our
common stock is defined as “penny stock” under the Exchange Act and its rules. The SEC has adopted regulations that
define “penny stock” to include common stock that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain
exceptions. These rules include the following requirements: (i) broker-dealers must deliver, prior to the transaction, a disclosure
schedule prepared by the SEC relating to the penny stock market, (ii) broker-dealers must disclose the commissions payable to
the broker-dealer and its registered representative, (iii) broker-dealers must disclose current quotations for the securities,
and (iv) a broker-dealer must furnish its customers with monthly statements disclosing recent price information for all penny
stocks held in the customer’s account and information on the limited market in penny stocks.

Additional
sales practice requirements are imposed on broker-dealers who sell penny stocks to persons other than established customers and
accredited investors. For these types of transactions, the broker-dealer must make a special suitability determination for the
purchaser and must have received the purchaser’s written consent to the transaction prior to sale. If our common stock remains
subject to these penny stock rules these disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the level of trading activity
in the secondary market for our common stock. As a result, fewer broker-dealers may be willing to make a market in our stock,
which could affect a shareholder’s ability to sell their shares.

Future
sales by our stockholders may adversely affect our stock price and our ability to raise funds in new stock offerings.

Sales
of our common stock in the public market following any prospective offering could lower the market price of our common stock.
Sales may also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities or equity-related securities in the future at a time and
price that our management deems acceptable.

esso
is our general policy to retain any earnings for use in our operation.

Noi
have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any,
for use in our business and therefore do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future,
although we intend to issue shares of common stock in satisfaction of the dividend payments due on our Series B Preferred Stock.

In the event of the sale, liquidation or
dissolution of the Company or any of our assets, holders of shares of a yet-to-be designated Series D Preferred Stock will be
entitled to a preference of a multiple of their investment amount, which will reduce the proceeds to be received by holders of
our common stock.

In connection with the 2017 Financing
and 2020 Financing, we have issued convertible notes that will become convertible into shares of a yet-to-be designated
Series D Preferred Stock. The Series D Preferred Stock will have a first priority right to receive proceeds from the sale,
liquidation or dissolution of us or any of our assets (each, a “Company Event”). If a Company Event occurs within
two (2) years of the date of issuance of the Series D Preferred Stock (the “Date of Issuance”), the holders of
Series D Preferred Stock will receive a preference of four times (4x) their respective investment amount. If a Company Event
occurs after the second (2nd) anniversary of the Date of Issuance, the holders of the Series D Preferred Stock will receive a
preference of six times (6x) their respective investment amount. As a result, upon the occurrence of a Company Event, the
holders of Series D Preferred Stock would have the right to receive proceeds from any such transaction before our common
stockholders. The payment of this preference could result in our common stockholders not receiving any consideration in
connection with a Company Event.

ITEM
    1B.
UNRESOLVED
    STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

Noi
currently lease approximately 4,500 square feet of space for operations in Century Park, Knoxville, TN. Our monthly rental charge
for these offices is approximately $7,607 per month. The lease is for five years and expires on June 30, 2022.

Item
3.
Legal
    Proceedings.

Il
information required by this item is incorporated by reference from Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 12 – Litigation.

ITEM
    4.
MINE
    SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not
applicable.

PART
II

ITEM
    5.
MARKET
    FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Market
Information and Holders

Our
common stock and listed warrants trade on the OTCQB Marketplace under the symbols “PVCT” and “PVCTWS,”
respectively.

As of March 2, 2020, we had 853
active shareholders of record of our common stock.

Dividendo
Policy

Noi
have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently plan to retain future earnings, if any, to finance
the growth and development of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We may incur
indebtedness in the future which may prohibit or effectively restrict the payment of dividends, although we have no current plans
to do so. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors.

Il
holders of our outstanding Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive cumulative dividends at the rate per share of 8% per
annum of the stated value per share, until the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock. Il
dividends become payable, at our option, in either cash, out of any funds legally available for such purpose, or in shares of
common stock, (i) upon any conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock, (ii) on each such other date as our Board of Directors
may determine, subject to written consent of the holders of Series B Preferred Stock holding a majority of the then issued and
outstanding Series B Preferred Stock, (iii) upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and (iv) upon occurrence of a fundamental
transaction, including any merger or consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, exchange or conversion of
all of our common stock by tender offer, exchange offer or reclassification, provided, however, that if Series B Preferred Stock
is converted into shares of common stock at any time prior to the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance of the Series B Preferred
Stock, the holder will receive a make-whole payment in an amount equal to all of the dividends that, but for the early conversion,
would have otherwise accrued on the applicable shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted for the period commencing on
the conversion date and ending on the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance, less the amount of all prior dividends paid on
such converted Series B Preferred Stock before the date of conversion. Make-whole payments are payable at our option in either
cash, out of any funds legally available for such purpose, or in shares of common stock. With respect to any dividend payments
and make-whole payments paid in shares of common stock, the number of shares of common stock to be issued to a holder of Series
B Preferred Stock will be an amount equal to the quotient of (a) the amount of the dividend payable to such holder divided by
(b) the conversion price then in effect.

Recent
Issuances of Unregistered Securities

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2018, we issued 1,000,000 shares of common stock in settlement of services rendered in lieu of cash
with a value of $80,000.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, we issued 229,090 shares of common stock as incentive compensation with a value of $11,538.

During the year ended December 31, 2019,
we issued 387,500 five-year immediately vested warrants to a consultant to purchase an aggregate of 387,500 shares of common stock
with exercise prices ranging from $1.00 to $2.00 per share. The warrants had an aggregate grant date fair value of $10,113, which
was recognized immediately within stock compensation in general and administrative expenses.

During the year ended December 31, 2019,
we issued 37,500 three-year immediately vested warrants to a consultant to purchase an aggregate of 37,500 shares of common stock
with an exercise price of $0.2862 per share. The warrants had an aggregate grant date fair value of $1,328, which was recognized
immediately within stock compensation in general and administrative expenses.

Il
issuances of the securities were exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 by virtue of Section
4(a)(2) and Rule 506 promulgated under Regulation D thereunder as transactions not involving a public offering.

Securities
Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

Information
about the securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans will be set forth under the heading “Equity
Compensation Plan Information” in the definitive Proxy Statement for our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will
be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, incorporated by reference in Part III, Item 12 of this
Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM
    6.
SELECTED
    FINANCIAL DATA.

Not
applicable.

ITEM
    7.
MANAGEMENT’S
    DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

Il
following discussion is intended to assist in the understanding and assessment of significant changes and trends related to our
results of operations and our financial condition together with our consolidated subsidiaries. This discussion and analysis should
be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Historical results and percentage relationships set forth in the statement of operations, including trends which might appear,
are not necessarily indicative of future operations.

Panoramica

Provectus
is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing a new class of drugs for oncology, hematology, and dermatology based on an
entire, wholly-owned, family of chemical small molecules called halogenated xanthenes. Intratumoral (aka intralesional) PV-10®,
the first small molecule autolytic immunotherapy, which can induce immunogenic cell death, is undergoing clinical study for adult
solid tumor cancers, such as melanoma and GI tumors (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic
neuroendocrine tumors, metastatic uveal melanoma), and preclinical study for pediatric solid tumor cancers (e.g., neuroblastoma,
Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma) and blood cancers (e.g., acute myeloid leukemia). Topical PH-10®
is undergoing clinical study for inflammatory dermatoses (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis).

Our
Advisory Boards

Il
Company named a second member, Frank Akers, Ph.D., to its Strategic Advisory Board effective as of September 1, 2019. The purpose
of the Strategic Advisory Board is for the Company to have formal access to a group of independent people with significant, meaningful,
professional experience who provide high quality, objective advice to the Company in areas of strategic importance, including
but not limited to business development, corporate development, and business operations (such as clinical operations, drug development,
regulatory affairs, and manufacturing of drug substance and drug product). The Company named the first member, Harold Schmitz,
Ph.D., to its Scientific Advisory Board effective as of September 1, 2019. The purpose of the Scientific Advisory Board is for
the Company to have formal access to a group of independent people with significant, meaningful, professional experience who provide
high quality, objective advice to the Company in areas of strategic scientific importance, such as but not limited to the Company’s
science and technology, and drug development.

Recent
Developments

2017
Financing

On
March 23, 2017, the Company entered into an exclusive Definitive Financing Commitment Term Sheet with a group of the Company’s
stockholders (the “PRH Group”), which was amended and restated effective as of March 19, 2017 (the “2017 Term
Sheet”) that set forth the terms on which the PRH Group would use their best efforts to arrange for a financing of a minimum
of $10,000,000 and maximum of $20,000,000 (the “2017 Financing”).

Come
of December 31, 2019, the Company had received aggregate Loans, as defined below, of $20,067,000 in connection with the 2017 Financing.

Il
2017 Financing is in the form of a secured convertible loan (the “1st Loan”) from the PRH Group or other
investors in the 2017 Financing (the “1st Loan Investors”). The 1st Loan is evidenced
by secured convertible promissory notes (individually a “2017 Note” and collectively, the “2017 Notes”)
from the Company to the PRH Group or the 1st Loan Investors. In addition to the customary provisions, the 2017 Notes
contains the following provisions:

(i)
esso
    is secured by a first priority security interest on the Company’s IP,
(ii)
Il
    1st Loan bears interest at the rate of 8% per annum on the outstanding principal amount of the 2017 Notes that
    has been funded to the Company,
(iii)
Il
    1st Loan proceeds are held in one or more accounts (the “Escrow”) pending the funding of the tranches
    of the 2017 Financing pursuant to borrowing requests made by the Company,
(iv) Il
    2017 Notes, including interest and principal, are due and payable in full on the earlier of: (i) on such date upon which the
    Company defaults under the 2017 Notes, (ii) upon a change of control of the Company, or (iii) dates ranging from May 18, 2020
    to the 18-month anniversary of the funding of the Final Tranche. In the event there is a change of control of the Company’s
    Board as proposed by any person or group other than the 1st Loan Investors,
    the term of the 2017 Notes will be accelerated and all amounts due under the 2017 Notes will be immediately due and payable,
    plus interest at the rate of 8% per annum, plus a penalty in the amount equal to 10 times the outstanding principal amount
    of the 1st Loan that has been funded to the Company,
(v)
Il
    outstanding principal amount and interest payable under the 1st Loan will become convertible at the sole
    discretion of the 1st Loan Investors into shares of the Company’s
    Series D Preferred Stock, a new series of preferred stock, that the Company’s Board may designate in the future, at
    a price per share equal to $0.2862, and

(vi)

Notwithstanding
    (v) above, the principal amount of the 2017 Notes and the interest payable under the 1st Loan will automatically
    convert into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock at a price per share equal to $0.2862 effective on the
    18-month anniversary of the funding of the final tranche of the 2017 Financing subject to certain exceptions if the Company’s
    Board designates such series of preferred stock in the future.

Pursuant
to the 2017 Term Sheet, the PRH Group concluded its best efforts activity to arrange for a financing of $20,000,000, which amounts
were provided in a number of tranches, between the first tranche on April 4, 2017 and the Final Tranche, on December 20,
2019. As a result, the 2017 Notes under the 1st Loan will convert into shares of Series D Preferred Stock (once
designated) of the Company on or before June 20, 2021, which is the 18-month anniversary of the funding of the Final Tranche
of the 2017 Financing, subject to certain exceptions.

Upon
conversion of the 2017 Notes, the 1st Loan Investors will release their first lien on the Company’s IP.

2020
Financing

On
December 31, 2019, the Board approved a Definitive Financing Term Sheet (the “2020 Term Sheet”), which sets forth
the terms under which the Company will use its best efforts to arrange for financing of a maximum of $20,000,000 (the “2020
Financing”).

Come
of December 31, 2019, the Company had received aggregate 2ND Loans, as defined below, of $100,000 in connection with
the 2020 Financing.

Pursuant
to the 2020 Term Sheet, the 2020 Notes (defined below) will convert into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock
on or before June 20, 2021, subject to certain exceptions. As of December 31, 2019, and through the date of filing, the Series
D Preferred Stock had not been designated by the Board.

Il
2020 Term Sheet is similar to the 2017 Term Sheet. Subject to the terms and conditions of the 2020 Term Sheet, the Company will
use its best efforts to arrange for the 2020 Financing, which amounts will be obtained in several tranches. The proceeds from
the 2020 Financing will be used to fund the Company’s clinical development program, as currently constituted and envisioned,
and to fund the Company’s general and administrative expenses.

The 2020 Financing will be in the form of
a secured convertible loan (the “2ND Loan”) from the Investors (the
“2ND Loan Investors”)
that will be evidenced by convertible promissory notes (individually, a “2020
Note” and collectively, the “2020 Notes”) subordinate to the 2017 Notes in right of payment and to the
security interests granted to holders of the 2017 Notes. In addition to customary provisions, the 2020 Notes contains the following
provisions:

(i)
It will be secured by a second priority security interest on the Company’s IP subordinate to the first priority security
interest of the 2017 Notes;

(ii)
The 2ND Loan will bear interest at the rate of eight percent (8%) per annum on the outstanding principal amount of
the 2ND Loan that has been funded to the Company;

(iii)
In the event there is a change of control of the Company’s Board, the term of the 2020 Notes will be accelerated and all
amounts due under the 2020 Notes will be immediately due and payable, plus interest at the rate of eight percent (8%) per annum,
plus a penalty in the amount equal to ten times (10x) the outstanding principal amount of the 2ND Loan that has been
funded to the Company;

(iv) The outstanding principal
amount and interest payable under the 2ND Loan will become convertible at the sole discretion of the 2ND
Loan Investors into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock, a series of preferred stock to be designated
by the Board, at a price per share equal to $2.8620; e

(v)
Notwithstanding (iv) above, the principal amount of the 2020 Notes and the interest payable under the 2ND Loan will
automatically convert into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock at a price per share equal to $2.8620 effective
on June 20, 2021 subject to certain exceptions.

Upon
conversion of the 2ND Loan, the 2ND Loan Investors will release their second lien on the IP. 2ND
Loan Investors in the 2020 Financing will hold Series D Preferred Stock pari passu with the Series D Preferred Stock of
1st Loan Investors in the 2017 Financing.

Il
Series D Preferred Stock

Come
of December 31, 2019, and through the date of filing, the Series D Preferred Stock had not been designated by the Board. Per the
terms of the 2017 Notes and 2020 Notes, if the Company has not designated the Series D Preferred Stock or if an insufficient number
of Series D Preferred shares exist upon a conversion by a note holder, then the outstanding loans will continue to accrue interest
at a rate of 8% per annum until which time the Company has designated a sufficient number of Series D Preferred shares.

Il
Series D Preferred Stock will have a first priority right to receive proceeds from the sale, liquidation or dissolution of the
Company or any of the Company’s assets (each, a “Company Event”).

Se
a Company Event occurs within two (2) years of the date of issuance of the Series D Preferred Stock (the “Date of Issuance”),
the holders of Series D Preferred Stock will receive a preference of four times (4x) their respective investment amount. If a
Company Event occurs after the second (2nd) anniversary of the Date of Issuance, the holders of the Series D Preferred Stock will
receive a preference of six times (6x) their respective investment amount.

Il
Series D Preferred Stock will be convertible at the option of the holders thereof into shares of the Company’s common stock
based on a formula to achieve a one-for-ten conversion ratio. The Series D Preferred Stock will automatically convert into shares
of the Company’s common stock upon the fifth (5esimo) anniversary of the Date of Issuance.

On
an as-converted basis, the Series D Preferred Stock will carry the right to ten (10) votes per share. The Series D Preferred Stock
will not have any dividend preference but will be entitled to receive, on a pari passu basis, dividends, if any, that are
declared and paid on any other class of the Company’s capital stock. The holders of Series D Preferred Stock will not have
anti-dilution protection.

Exercise
of Warrants

Nel
2019, holders of 5,045,857 warrants to purchase the common stock of the Company at $0.0533 per share, have exercised these warrants.
The Company has received proceeds in the aggregate amount of $268,943.

Components
of Operating Results

Research
and Development Expenses

UN
large component of our total operating expenses is the Company’s investment in research and development activities, including
the clinical development of our product candidates. Research and development expenses represent costs incurred to conduct research
and undertake clinical trials to develop our drug product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of:

costs
    of conducting clinical trials, including amounts paid to clinical centers, clinical research organizations and consultants,
    among others;
salaries
    and related expenses for personnel, including stock-based compensation expense;
altro
    outside service costs including cost of contract manufacturing;
il
    costs of supplies and reagents;
occupancy
    and depreciation charges.

Noi
expense research and development costs as incurred.

Research
and development activities are central to our business model. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in the
future as we advance our existing product candidates through clinical trials and pursue their regulatory approval. Undertaking
clinical development and pursuing regulatory approval are both costly and time-consuming activities. As a result of known and
unknown uncertainties, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of our research and development activities,
or if, when, and to what extent we will generate revenue from any subsequent commercialization and sale of our drug product candidates.

General
and Administrative Expenses

General
and administrative expense consists primarily of salaries, stock-based compensation expense and other related costs for personnel
in executive, finance, accounting, business development, legal, information technology and corporate communication functions.
Other costs include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expense, insurance, and professional fees
for legal, patent and accounting services.

Comparison
of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

Panoramica

Total
operating expenses were $6,299,696 for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $1,754,529 or 21.8% compared to the
year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease was driven primarily by our transformation and process improvement efforts within
the Company. Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $6,922,537, a decrease of $1,230,518 or 15.1% which resulted
from costs incurred in connection with our preclinical and clinical trial programs and general and administrative
costs.

For the Years Ended
December 31, Increase/
2019 2018 (Decrease) % Change
Operating Expenses:
Research and development $ 4,002,014 $ 4,747,557 $ (745,543 ) -15.7 %
General and administrative 2,297,682 3,306,668 (1,008,986 ) -30.5 %
Total Operating Expenses 6,299,696 8,054,225 (1,754,529 ) -21.8 %
Total Operating Loss (6,299,696 ) (8,054,225 ) (1,754,529 ) 21.8 %
Other Income/(Expense):
Gain on settlement of lawsuits 675,000 825,000 (150,000 ) -18.2 %
Research and development tax credit 134,081 26,325 107,756 409.3 %
Investment and interest income 23,162 19,560 3,602 18.4 %
Interest expense (1,455,084 ) (969,715 ) (485,369 ) 50.1 %
Net Loss $ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 ) $ (1,230,518 ) 15.1 %

Research
and Development

Research
and development expenses were $4,002,014 for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $745,543 or 15.7% compared to the
year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease was due to (i) lower clinical operations due to closure of Phase III study in 2019
and drug manufacturing in 2018, (ii) lower insurance costs, and (iii) lower payroll and related taxes due to a lower negotiated
employment agreement.

Il
following table summarizes our research and development expenses incurred during the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

For the Years Ended
December 31, Increase/
2019 2018 (Decrease) % Change
Research and development:
Clinical trial and research expenses $ 2,661,530 $ 3,206,457 $ (544,927 ) -17.0 %

Depreciation/amortization

679,767 679,767 0.0 %
Assicurazione 258,067 285,853 (27,786 ) -9.7 %
Payroll and taxes 329,532 509,615 (180,083 ) -35.3 %
Rent and utilities 73,118 65,865 7,253 11.0 %
Total research and development $ 4,002,014 $ 4,747,557 $ (745,543 ) -15.7 %

General
and Administrative

General
and administrative expenses were $2,297,682 for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $1,008,986 or 30.5% compared to
the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease was due to (i) lower legal fees as we concluded the Company’s lawsuits against
former accounting vendors, (ii) lower payroll and related taxes, and (iii) lower professional fees, partially offset by
(vi) increased director fees (from having period-over-period, a five-member Board compared to a four-member Board in previous
year).

Il
following table summarizes our general and administrative expenses incurred during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

For the Years Ended
December 31, Increase/
2019 2018 (Decrease) % Change
General and administrative:
Depreciation $ 5,445 $ 5,445 $ 0.0 %
Directors fees 385,000 333,357 51,643 15.5 %
Assicurazione 170,384 187,367 (16,983 ) -9.1 %
Legal and litigation 509,810 1,318,785 (808,975 ) -61.3 %
Other general and administrative cost 118,790 115,000 3,790 3.3 %
Payroll and taxes 305,074 490,386 (185,312 ) -37.8 %
Professional fees 765,654 822,458 (56,804 ) -6.9 %
Rent and utilities 37,525 33,870 3,655 10.8 %
Total general and administrative $ 2,297,682 $ 3,306,668 $ (1,008,986 ) -30.5 %

Altro
Income/(Expense)

Other income decreased
by $38,642 from $870,885 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $832,243 for the year ended December 31, 2019. During the year
ended December 31, 2019, the matters with former accounting vendors Bible Harris Smith, PC (“BHS”) and RSM US LLP
(“RSM”) were resolved pursuant to a settlement between these parties and the Company, the terms of which are confidential.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the matter with BDO USA LLP (“BDO”), the Company’s former external
audit firm, was resolved pursuant to a settlement between the party and the Company, the terms of which are confidential.

Interest
expense increased by $485,369 from $969,715 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $1,455,084 for the year ended December 31,
2019. The increase was due to the increased number of convertible notes payable relating to the 2017 Notes.

Il
following table summarizes our Other Income/(Expenses) incurred during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

For the Years Ended
December 31, Increase/
2019 2018 (Decrease) % Change
Other Income/(Expense):
Gain on settlement of lawsuits 675,000 825,000 (150,000 ) -18.2 %
Research and development tax credit 134,081 26,325 107,756 409.3 %
Investment and interest income 23,162 19,560 3,602 18.4 %
Interest expense (1,455,084 ) (969,715 ) (485,369 ) 50.1 %
Net Loss $ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 ) $ (1,230,518 ) 15.1 %

Liquidity
and Going Concern

Our
cash and cash equivalents were $590,706 at December 31, 2019, compared with $50,986 at December 31, 2018. The consolidated financial
statements and notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared on a basis that contemplates the realization
of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. We have continuing net losses
and negative cash flows from operating activities. In addition, we have an accumulated deficit of $233,816,828 as of December
31, 2019. These conditions raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern for a period of at least one
year from the date that the financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are issued. Our financial
statements do not include any adjustments to the amounts and classification of assets and liabilities that may be necessary should
we be unable to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern depends on our ability to obtain additional
financing as may be required to fund current operations.

Management’s
plans include selling our equity securities and obtaining other financing to fund our capital requirement and on-going operations,
including the 2020 Financing discussed above; however, there can be no assurance we will be successful in these efforts. The financial
statements do not include any adjustment that might be necessary if we are unable to continue as a going concern. Significant
funds will be needed to continue and complete our ongoing and planned clinical trials.

Access
to Capital

Management
plans to access capital resources through possible public or private equity offerings, including the 2020 Financing, exchange
offers, debt financings, corporate collaborations, or other means. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital through the 2020
Financing or otherwise, we will not be able to pay our obligations as they become due.

Il
primary business objective of management is to build the Company into a commercial-stage biotechnology company; however, we cannot
assure you that management will be successful in implementing the Company’s business plan of developing, licensing, and/or
commercializing our prescription drug candidates. Moreover, even if we are successful in improving our current cash flow position,
we nonetheless plan to seek additional funds to meet our current and long-term requirements in 2020 and beyond. We anticipate
that these funds will otherwise come from the proceeds of private placement transactions, including the 2020 Financing, the exercise
of existing warrants and outstanding stock options, or public offerings of debt or equity securities. While we believe that we
have a reasonable basis for our expectation that we will be able to raise additional funds, we cannot assure you that we will
be able to complete additional financing in a timely manner. In addition, any such financing may result in significant dilution
to stockholders.

Durante
the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our sources and uses of cash were as follows:

Net
Cash Used in Operating Activities

Noi
experienced negative cash flow from operating activities for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 in the amounts of $6,190,215
and $5,204,926, respectively. The net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily due
to cash used to fund a net loss of $6,922,537, adjusted for non-cash expenses in the aggregate amount of $779,341, plus $47,019
of cash used to fund changes in the levels of operating assets and liabilities. The net cash used in operating activities for
the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily due to cash used to fund a net loss of $8,153,055, adjusted for non-cash expenses
in the aggregate amount of $765,213, partially reduced by $2,182,916 of cash provided by changes in the levels of operating assets
and liabilities.

Net
Cash Used in Investing Activities

During the years ended December 31, 2019 and
2018, net cash used in investing activities was $0 and $0, respectively.

Net
Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net
cash provided by financing activities during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 was $6,753,943 and $5,150,408, respectively.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, $6,485,000 were proceeds from the issuance of convertible notes payable and $268,943
were from the exercise of warrants. During the year ended December 31, 2018, $4,476,000 were proceeds from the issuance of convertible
notes payable and $674,408 were from the exercise of warrants.

Critical
Accounting Policies

Our
critical accounting policies are included in Note 3 – Significant Accounting Policies of our consolidated financial statements
included within this annual report.

Recent
Accounting Pronouncements

Recently
issued accounting standards are included in Note 3 – Significant Accounting Policies of our consolidated financial statements
included within this annual report.

ITEM
    7A.
QUANTITATIVE
    AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

Not
applicable.

ITEM
    8.
FINANCIAL
    STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.

INDEX
TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

REPORT
OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Per
the Shareholders and Board of Directors of

Provectus
Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.

Opinione
on the Financial Statements

Noi
have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Provectus Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) as
of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in
stockholders’ deficiency and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019, and the related
notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly,
in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the consolidated
results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019, in conformity with
accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Explanatory
Paragraph – Going Concern

Il
accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.
As more fully described in Note 2, the Company has a significant working capital deficiency, has incurred significant losses,
and needs to raise additional funds to meet its obligations and sustain its operations. These conditions raise substantial doubt
about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also
described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of
this uncertainty.

Adoption of New Accounting Standard

ASU No.2016-02

As discussed in Note 3 to the consolidated
financial statements, the Company changed its method of accounting for leases in 2019 due to the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02,
Leases (Topic 842), as amended, effective January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective approach.

Basis
for Opinion

These
financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on
the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company
Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company
in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission
and the PCAOB.

Noi
conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits
to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error
or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial
reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not
for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our
audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to
error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence
regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles
used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements.
We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ Marcum LLP

Marcum llp

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.

New York, NY

March
5, 2020

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED
BALANCE SHEETS

December 31,
2019 2018
Assets
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 590,706 $ 50,986
Short-term receivables – legal fees, settlement and other, net 55,058 595,326
Prepaid expenses 350,249 370,209
Total Current Assets 996,013 1,016,521
Equipment and furnishings, less accumulated depreciation of $64,630 and
    $50,538, respectively
58,384 72,476
Operating lease right-of-use asset 194,400
Patents, net of accumulated amortization of
    $11,487,338 and $10,816,218, respectively
228,107 899,227
Total Assets $ 1,476,904 $ 1,988,224
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Deficiency
Current Liabilities:
Accounts payable – trade $ 1,125,890 $ 3,312,049
Accrued interest 65,333
Convertible notes payable 500,000
Other accrued expenses 1,255,266 790,358
Current portion of operating lease liability 76,423
Total Current Liabilities 3,022,912 4,102,407
Accrued interest 1,501,864 659,379
Accrued interest – related parties 1,226,582 711,927
Convertible notes payable 12,997,000 7,062,000
Convertible notes payable – related parties 6,670,000 6,870,000
Non-current portion of operating lease liability 130,658
Total Liabilities 25,549,016 19,405,713
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Stockholders’ Deficiency:
Preferred stock; par value $0.001 per share; 25,000,000 shares authorized; Series B
    Convertible Preferred Stock; 240,000 shares designated; 100 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019 and December
    31, 2018; aggregate liquidation preference of $3,500 at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018
Common stock; par value $0.001 per share; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 389,889,475 and
    384,614,528 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively
389,889 384,615
Additional paid-in capital 209,378,835 209,092,187
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (24,008 )
Accumulated deficit (233,816,828 ) (226,894,291 )
Total Stockholders’ Deficiency (24,072,112 ) (17,417,489 )
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Deficiency $ 1,476,904 $ 1,988,224

See
accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

For the Years Ended
December 31,
2019 2018
Operating Expenses:
Research and development $ 4,002,014 $ 4,747,557
General and administrative 2,297,682 3,306,668
Total Operating Expenses 6,299,696 8,054,225
Total Operating Loss (6,299,696 ) (8,054,225 )
Other Income/(Expense):
Gain on settlement of lawsuits 675,000 825,000
Research and development tax credit 134,081 26,325
Investment and interest income 23,162 19,560
Interest expense (1,455,084 ) (969,715 )
Net Loss $ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 )
Basic and Diluted Loss Per Common Share $ (0.02 ) $ (0.02 )
Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding
    – Basic and Diluted
386,593,634 382,338,471

See
accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED
STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

For the Years Ended
December 31,
2019 2018
Net Loss $ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 )
Other Comprehensive Loss:
Foreign currency translation adjustments (24,008 )
Total Comprehensive Loss $ (6,946,545 ) $ (8,153,055 )

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial
statements.

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED
STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIENCY

FOR
THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019 AND 2018

Accumulated
Preferred
    Stock
Additional Altro
Series
    B
Common
    Stock
Paid-In Comprehensive Accumulated
Shares Amount Shares Amount Capital Loss Deficit Total
Balance
    at January 1, 2018
100 $ 370,961,451 $ 370,962 $ 208,351,431 $ $ (218,741,236 ) $ (10,018,843 )
Common
    stock issued upon exercise of warrants
12,653,077 12,653 661,756 674,409
Common
    stock issued in lieu of accounts payable
1,000,000 1,000 79,000 80,000
Net
    loss
(8,153,055.00 ) (8,153,055 )
Balance
    at December 31, 2018
100 $ 384,614,528 $ 384,615 $ 209,092,187 $ $ (226,894,291 ) $ (17,417,489 )
Common
    stock issued upon exercise of warrants
5,045,857 5,045 263,898 268,943
Common
    stock issued for services
229,090 229 11,309 11,538
Warrants
    issued for services
11,441 11,441
Comprehensive
    loss:
Net
    loss
(6,922,537 ) (6,922,537 )
Altro
    comprehensive loss
(24,008 ) (24,008 )
Balance
    at December 31, 2019
100 $ 389,889,475 $ 389,889 $ 209,378,835 $ (24,008 ) $ (233,816,828 ) $ (24,072,112 )

See
accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED
STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

For the Years Ended
December 31,
2019 2018
Cash Flows From Operating Activities:
Net loss $ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 )
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Stock-based compensation 22,979 80,000
Noncash lease expense 71,150
Depreciation 14,092 14,093
Amortization of patents 671,120 671,120
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Settlement receivable 4,907 528,235
Prepaid expenses 19,960 30,207
Accounts payable – trade (2,186,159 ) 41,544
Other accrued expenses 731,134 613,215
Operating lease liability (71,945 )
Accrued interest expense 1,455,084 969,715
Net Cash Used In Operating Activities (6,190,215 ) (5,204,926 )
Cash Flows From Financing Activities:
Proceeds from issuance of convertible notes payable 6,435,000 2,606,000
Proceeds from issuance of convertible notes payable – related
    parties
50,000 1,870,000
Proceeds from exercise of warrants 268,943 674,408
Net Cash Provided By Financing
    Activities
6,753,943 5,150,408
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes
    on Cash
(24,008 )
Net Increase (Decrease) In Cash and Cash Equivalents 539,720 (54,518 )
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Beginning of Year 50,986 105,504
Cash and Cash Equivalents, End of Year $ 590,706 $ 50,986
Supplemental Disclosures of Cash Flow Information:
Cash paid during the year for:
Interest $ $
Income taxes $ $
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Offset of related party receivable against note
    payable, accrued interest, and accrued expenses
$ 535,361 $ 150,000

See
accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

PROVECTUS
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

NOTES
TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1.
Business Organization and Nature of Operations

Provectus
Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (together with its subsidiaries, “Provectus” or the “Company”),
is a clinical-stage biotechnology company that is developing a new class of drugs for oncology, hematology, and dermatology based
on an entire, wholly-owned, family of small molecules called halogenated xanthenes:

Oncology:
Intralesional (aka intratumoral) PV-10, a cancer immunotherapy, is undergoing clinical study for adult solid tumor cancers,
    like melanoma and gastrointestinal (“GI”) tumors (including hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic colorectal cancer,
    metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, and metastatic uveal melanoma, among others). Orphan drug designation status has been granted
    to PV-10 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) for the treatments of metastatic melanoma in 2006,
    hepatocellular carcinoma in 2011, and ocular melanoma (including uveal melanoma) in 2019.
PV-10
    is also undergoing preclinical study for pediatric solid tumor cancers (including neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma,
    and osteosarcoma). Orphan drug designation status has been granted to PV-10 by the FDA for neuroblastoma in 2018.
Hematology.
PV-10 is also undergoing preclinical study for pediatric blood cancers (including leukemia).
Dermatology:
Topical PH-10, an immuno-dermatology agent, is undergoing clinical study for inflammatory dermatoses, like psoriasis and
    atopic dermatitis.

Per
date, the Company has not generated any revenues from planned principal operations. The Company’s activities are subject
to significant risks and uncertainties, including failing to successfully develop and license or commercialize the Company’s
prescription drug candidates.

2.
Liquidity and Going Concern

Il
Company’s cash and cash equivalents were $590,706 at December 31, 2019, compared with $50,986 at December 31, 2018. The
Company continues to incur significant operating losses and management expects that significant on-going operating expenditures
will be necessary to successfully implement the Company’s business plan and develop and market its products. These circumstances
raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the
financial statements are issued. Implementation of the Company’s plans and its ability to continue as a going concern will
depend upon the Company’s ability to develop PV-10 and PH-10 and raise additional capital.

Il
Company plans to access capital resources through possible public or private equity offerings, including the 2020 Financing (as
defined in Note 4), exchange offers, debt financings, corporate collaborations or other means. In addition, the Company continues
to explore opportunities to strategically monetize its lead drug candidates, PV-10 and PH-10, through potential co-development
and licensing transactions, although there can be no assurance that the Company will be successful with such plans. The Company
has historically been able to raise capital through equity offerings, although no assurance can be provided that it will continue
to be successful in the future. If the Company is unable to raise sufficient capital through the 2020 Financing or otherwise,
it will not be able to pay its obligations as they become due.  Subsequent to December 31, 2019, the Company received an
aggregate $50,000 in connection with the 2020 Financing. In addition, holders of 800,000 warrants to purchase the common stock
of the Company at $0.0533 per share, have exercised these warrants. As a result, the Company has received aggregate
proceeds in the amount of $42,640. See Note 13 – Subsequent Events.

Il
primary business objective of management is to build the Company into a commercial-stage biotechnology company; however, the Company
cannot assure that it will be successful in co-developing, licensing, and/or commercializing PV-10, PH-10, and/or any other halogenated
xanthene-based drug candidate developed by the Company, or entering into any financial transaction. Moreover, even if the Company
is successful in improving its current cash flow position, the Company nonetheless plans to seek additional funds to meet its
long-term requirements in 2020 and beyond. The Company anticipates that these funds will otherwise come from the proceeds of private
placement transactions, including the 2020 Financing, the exercise of existing warrants and outstanding stock options, or public
offerings of debt or equity securities. While the Company believes that it has a reasonable basis for its expectation that it
will be able to raise additional funds, the Company cannot provide assurance that it will be able to complete additional financing
in a timely manner. In addition, any such financing may result in significant dilution to stockholders.

3.
Significant Accounting Policies

Principles
of Consolidation

Intercompany
balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Uso
of Estimates

Il
preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”)
requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and
disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and
expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the collectability of
receivables, the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets, stock-based compensation, accrued liabilities and
the valuation allowance related to the Company’s deferred tax assets. Certain of the Company’s estimates, including
the carrying amount of the intangible assets, could be affected by external conditions, including those unique to the Company
and general economic conditions. It is reasonably possible that these external factors could have an effect on the Company’s
estimates and could cause actual results to differ from those estimates.

Cash
and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid
investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2019, and
2018, the Company’s cash equivalent consists of Treasury bills.

Cash
Concentrations

Cash
and cash equivalents are maintained at financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits of $250,000,
although the Company seeks to minimize this through treasury management. The Company has never experienced any losses related
to these balances although no assurance can be provided that it will not experience any losses in the future.

attrezzatura
and Furnishings, net

attrezzatura
and furnishings are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of equipment is provided for using the straight-line
method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Computers, leasehold improvements and office equipment are being depreciated
over five years; furniture and fixtures are being depreciated over ten years. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations
as incurred. The Company capitalizes cost attributable to the betterment of property and equipment when such betterment extends
the useful life of the assets.

Long-Lived
Assets

Il
Company reviews the carrying values of its long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever an event or change in circumstances
indicates that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. Any long-lived assets held for disposal are reported
at the lower of their carrying amounts or fair value less cost to sell. Management has determined there to be no impairment during
the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

Patent
Costs, net

Internal
patent costs are expensed in the period incurred. Patents purchased are capitalized and amortized over the remaining estimated
useful life of the patent.

The patents are being amortized over the remaining
estimated useful lives of the patents, which is approximately one year. Annual amortization of the patents is expected
to approximate $228,000 in 2020.

Relazionato
Party Receivables

Management
estimates the reserve for uncollectibility based on existing economic conditions, the financial conditions of the current and
former employees, and the amount and age of past due receivables. Receivables are considered past due if full payment is not received
by the contractual due date. Past due amounts are generally written off against the reserve for uncollectibility only after all
collection attempts have been exhausted. See Note 6 – Receivables.

Research
and Development

Research
and development costs are charged to expense when incurred. An allocation of payroll expenses to research and development is made
based on a percentage estimate of time spent. The research and development costs include the following: payroll, consulting and
contract labor, lab supplies and pharmaceutical preparations, insurance, rent and utilities, and depreciation and amortization.

Leases

Nel
February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a new standard related to leases to increase
transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”)
assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet (“ASC 842”) with amendments issued in 2018. Most prominent among
the changes in the standard is the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating
leases. Under the standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess
the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company is also required to recognize and measure new
leases at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment in the period of adoption using a modified retrospective
approach, with certain practical expedients available.

Il
Company adopted ASC 842 effective January 1, 2019 and elected to apply the available practical expedients. The standard had an
impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets but did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated
statements of operations or cash flows upon adoption. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets and lease
liabilities for operating leases. The adoption of ASC 842 had a material impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet
but did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statement of operations.

Il
impact of the adoption of ASC Topic 842 on the balance sheet as of January 1, 2019 is as follows:

As Reported

December 31, 2018

Adoption
                                         of

ASC
                                         842

Balance

January 1, 2019

Operating lease right-of-use asset $ $ 265,550 $ 265,550
Total assets $ 1,988,224 $ 265,550 $ 2,253,774
Current liabilities $ 4,102,407 $ 58,469 $ 4,160,876
Non-current portion of operating lease liability $ $ 207,081 $ 207,081
Total liabilities $ 19,405,713 $ 265,550 $ 19,671,263

Income
Taxes

Il
Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”)
740 “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences
between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that
will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is established if it is more likely than
not that all, or some portion, of deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The Company has recorded a full valuation allowance
to reduce its net deferred income tax assets to zero. In the event the Company were to determine that it would be able to realize
some or all its deferred income tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred income tax asset would increase income
in the period such determination was made.

Il
Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained upon
an examination. Any recognized income tax positions would be measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of
being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement would be reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs.
The Company would recognize any corresponding interest and penalties associated with its income tax positions in income tax expense.
There were no income taxes, interest or penalties incurred in 2019 or 2018.

Basic
and Diluted Loss Per Common Share

Basic
loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of vested common shares outstanding during
the period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other instruments to
issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. The following securities are excluded from the calculation of
weighted average dilutive common shares because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:

December
    31,
2019 2018
Warrants 126,109,532 136,824,138
Options 3,000,000 3,200,000
Convertible
    preferred stock
65,663 65,663
Total
    potentially dilutive shares
129,175,195 140,089,801

Il
potential dilutive effect of the conversion of the Company’s convertible notes payable has been excluded from this table
since the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock has yet to be designated by the Board.

Fair
Value of Financial Instruments

Il
Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the guidance of ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements
and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”) which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and
expands disclosures about fair value measurements. The Company determines the estimated fair value of amounts presented in these
consolidated financial statements using available market information and appropriate methodologies. However, considerable judgment
is required in interpreting market data to develop the estimates of fair value. The estimates presented in the financial statements
are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current exchange between buyer and seller. The use of
different market assumptions and/or estimation methodologies may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. These
fair value estimates were based upon pertinent information available as of December 31, 2019 and 2018. The carrying amounts of
the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash and cash equivalents, receivables, other current assets,
accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate fair values due to the short-term nature of these
instruments.

Il
carrying amounts of our credit obligations approximate fair value because the effective yields on these obligations, which include
contractual interest rates are comparable to rates of returns for instruments of similar credit risk.

ASC
820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price)
in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants
on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable
inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 describes three levels of inputs that may
be used to measure fair value:

Level
    1
Inputs
    use quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.
Level
    2
Inputs
    use directly or indirectly observable inputs. These inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active
    markets as well as other inputs such as interest rates and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals.
Level
    3
Inputs
    are unobservable inputs, including inputs that are available in situations where there is little, if any, market activity
    for the related asset or liability.

Nel
instances where inputs used to measure fair value fall into different levels in the above fair value hierarchy, fair value measurements
in their entirety are categorized based on the lowest level input that is significant to the valuation. The Company’s assessment
of the significance of particular inputs to these fair value measurements requires judgment and considers factors specific to
each asset or liability.

Both
observable and unobservable inputs may be used to determine the fair value of positions that are classified within the Level 3
category. As a result, the unrealized gains and losses for assets within the Level 3 category may include changes in fair value
that were attributable to both observable (e.g., changes in market interest rates) and unobservable (e.g., changes in historical
company data) inputs. Financial assets are considered Level 3 when their fair values are determined using pricing models, discounted
cash flow methodologies or similar techniques and at least one significant model assumption or input is unobservable.

Foreign
Currency Translation

Il
Company’s reporting currency is the United States Dollar. The functional currencies of the Company’s operating subsidiaries
are their local currencies (United States Dollar and Australian Dollar). Australian Dollar denominated assets and liabilities
are translated into the United States Dollar at the balance sheet date ($61,380 and $308,915 at December 31, 2019 and $15,049
and $336,031 at December 31, 2018, respectively), and expense accounts are translated at a weighted average exchange rate for
the years then ended ($53,210 and $247,947 for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively). Equity is translated
at historical rates and the resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are included as a component of accumulated other
comprehensive income (“AOCI”), which is a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Therefore, the U.S. dollar
value of the non-equity translated items in the Company’s consolidated financial statements will fluctuate from period to
period, depending on the changing value of the U.S. dollar versus these currencies.

Il
Company engages in foreign currency denomination transactions with its Australian subsidiary. At the date that the transaction
is recognized, each asset, liability, revenue, expense, gain or loss arising from the transaction is measured and recorded in
the functional currency of the recording entity using the exchange rate in effect at that date. At each balance sheet date, recorded
monetary balances denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are adjusted using the exchange rate at the balance
sheet date, with gains or losses recorded in other income or other expense.

Stock-Based
Compensation

Il
Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award.
The fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and then is recognized over the period during which services are required
to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. The Company computes the fair value of equity-classified
warrants and options granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Option valuation models require the input of highly
subjective assumptions including the expected volatility factor of the market price of the Company’s common stock which
is determined by reviewing its historical public market closing prices.

Recent
Accounting Pronouncements

Nel
June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses
on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 significantly changes the impairment model for most financial
assets and certain other instruments. ASU 2016-13 will require immediate recognition of estimated credit losses expected to occur
over the remaining life of many financial assets, which will generally result in earlier recognition of allowances for credit
losses on loans and other financial instruments. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the Company’s fiscal year beginning December
1, 2019 and subsequent interim periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have on
its consolidated financial statements. Subsequent to the issuance of ASU 2016-13, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements
to Topic 326, Financial Instruments —Credit Losses, ASU 2019-05, Financial Instruments —Credit Losses (Topic 326)
Targeted Transition Relief, ASU 2016-13, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives
and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842) and ASU 2019-11 Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit
Losses. These ASUs do not change the core principle of the guidance in ASU 2016-13. Instead these amendments are intended to clarify
and improve operability of certain topics included within the credit losses standard. These ASUs will have the same effective
date and transition requirements as ASU 2016-13. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020 and
it did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No.
2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair
Value Measurement” (“ASU 2018-13”). The amendments in ASU 2018-13 modify the disclosure requirements on fair
value measurements based on the concepts in the Concepts Statement, including the consideration of costs and benefits. The amendments
on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level
3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for
only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be
applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The amendments are effective for all entities for
fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including
adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted ASU effective January 1, 2020 and
it did not have a material impact on the
Company’s consolidated financial
statements.

Nel
December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The amendments in ASU 2019-12
simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Accounting Standards Codification
(“ASC”) Topic 740, Income Taxes. The amendments also improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for
other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for the Company’s fiscal
year beginning after December 15. 2020, with early adoption permitted. The transition requirements are dependent upon each amendment
within this update and will be applied either prospectively or retrospectively. The Company does not expect this ASU to have a
material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

Nel
January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, “Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and
Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815).” ASU 2020-01 states any equity security transitioning
from the alternative method of accounting under Topic 321 to the equity method, or vice versa, due to an observable transaction
will be remeasured immediately before the transition. In addition, the ASU clarifies the accounting for certain non-derivative
forward contracts or purchased call options to acquire equity securities stating such instruments will be measured using the fair
value principles of Topic 321 before settlement or exercise. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15,
2020, and will be applied on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is still evaluating the impact this
standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

4.
Convertible Notes Payable

2017
Financing

On
March 23, 2017, the Company entered into an exclusive Definitive Financing Commitment Term Sheet with a group of the Company’s
stockholders (the “PRH Group”), which was amended and restated effective as of March 19, 2017 (the 2017 Term Sheet)
that set forth the terms on which the PRH Group would use their best efforts to arrange for a financing of a minimum of $10,000,000
and maximum of $20,000,000 (the “2017 Financing”).

Il
2017 Financing was in the form of a secured convertible loan (the “1st Loan”) from the PRH Group
or other investors in the 2017 Financing (the “1st Loan Investors”). The Loan was evidenced by secured
convertible promissory notes (individually a “2017 Note” and collectively, the “2017 Notes”) from the
Company to the PRH Group or the Investors. In addition to the customary provisions, the 2017 Note contained the following
provisions:

(i)
esso
    is secured by a first priority security interest on the Company’s IP,
(ii)
Il
    1st Loan bears interest at the rate of 8% per annum on the outstanding principal amount of the 2017 Notes that
    has been funded to the Company,
(iii)
Il
    1st Loan proceeds are held in one or more accounts (the Escrow) pending the funding of the tranches of the 2017
    Financing pursuant to borrowing requests made by the Company,
(iv) Il
    2017 Notes, including interest and principal, are due and payable in full on the earlier of: (i) on such date upon which the
    Company defaults under the 2017 Notes, (ii) upon a change of control of the Company, or (iii) dates ranging from May 18, 2020
    to the 18-month anniversary of the funding of the Final Tranche. In the event there is
    a change of control of the Company’s Board as proposed by any person or group other than the Investors, the term of
    the 2017 Notes will be accelerated and all amounts due under the 2017 Notes will be immediately due and payable, plus interest
    at the rate of 8% per annum, plus a penalty in the amount equal to 10 times the outstanding principal amount of the 1st
Loan that has been funded to the Company,
(v)
Il
    outstanding principal amount and interest payable under the 1st Loan will become convertible at the sole
    discretion of the 1st Loan Investors into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock, a new series
    of preferred stock, that the Company’s Board may designate in the future, at a price per share equal to $0.2862, and
(vi) Notwithstanding
    (v) above, the principal amount of the 2017 Notes and the interest payable under the 1st Loan would automatically
    convert into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock at a price per share equal to $0.2862 effective on the
    18-month anniversary of the funding of the final tranche of the 2017 Financing (subject to certain exceptions)
    if the Company’s Board designates such series of preferred stock in the future.

Pursuant
to the 2017 Term Sheet, the PRH Group concluded its best efforts activity to arrange for a financing of $20,000,000, which amounts
were provided in a number of tranches, between the first tranche on April 4, 2017 and the Final Tranche on December 20, 2019.
As a result, the 2017 Notes under the 1st Loan will convert into shares of Series D Preferred Stock of the Company
(assuming such shares have been designated) on or before June 20, 2021, which is the 18-month anniversary of the funding
of the Final Tranche of the 2017 Financing, subject to certain exceptions.

Upon
conversion of the 2017 Notes, the 1st Loan Investors will release their first lien on the Company’s IP.

2020
Financing

On
December 31, 2019, the Board approved a Definitive Financing Term Sheet (the “2020 Term Sheet”), which sets forth
the terms under which the Company will use its best efforts to arrange for financing of a maximum of $20,000,000 (the “2020
Financing”).

Come
of December 31, 2019, the Company had received aggregate 2ND Loans, as defined below, of $100,000 in connection with
the 2020 Financing.

Il
2020 Term Sheet is similar to the 2017 Term Sheet. Subject to the terms and conditions of the 2020 Term Sheet, the Company will
use its best efforts to arrange for the 2020 Financing, which amounts will be obtained in several tranches. The proceeds from
the 2020 Financing will be used to fund the Company’s clinical development program, as currently constituted and envisioned,
and to fund the Company’s general and administrative expenses.

The 2020 Financing will be in the form
of a secured convertible loan (the “2ND Loan”) from the Investors (the “2ND Loan Investors”)
that will be evidenced by convertible promissory notes (individually, a “2020 Note” and collectively, the “2020
Notes”) subordinate to the 2017 Notes in right of payment and to the security interests granted to holders of the
2017 Notes. In addition to customary provisions, the 2020 Notes shall contain the following provisions:

(i) esso
    will be secured by a second priority security interest on the Company’s IP subordinate to the first priority security
    interest of the 2017 Notes;
(ii) Il
    2ND Loan will bear interest at the rate of eight percent (8%) per annum on the outstanding principal amount of
    the 2nd Loan that has been funded to the Company;
(iii) Nel
    the event there is a change of control of the Company’s Board, the term of the 2020 Notes will be accelerated and all
    amounts due under the 2020 Notes will be immediately due and payable, plus interest at the rate of eight percent (8%) per
    annum, plus a penalty in the amount equal to ten times (10x) the outstanding principal amount of the 2ND Loan that
    has been funded to the Company;
(iv) Il
    outstanding principal amount and interest payable under the 2ND Loan will be convertible at the sole discretion
    of the 2ND Loan Investors into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock, a series of preferred stock
    to be designated by the Board, at a price per share equal to $2.8620; e
(v) Notwithstanding
    (iv) above, the principal amount of the 2020 Notes and the interest payable under the 2ND Loan will automatically
    convert into shares of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock at a price per share equal to $2.8620 effective on June
    20, 2021 subject to certain exceptions.

Il
Series D Preferred Stock

Il
Series D Preferred Stock shall have a first priority right to receive proceeds from the sale, liquidation or dissolution of the
Company or any of the Company’s assets (each, a “Company Event”).

Se
a Company Event occurs within two (2) years of the date of issuance of the Series D Preferred Stock (the “Date of Issuance”),
the holders of Series D Preferred Stock shall receive a preference of four times (4x) their respective investment amount. If a
Company Event occurs after the second (2nd) anniversary of the Date of Issuance, the holders of the Series D Preferred Stock shall
receive a preference of six times (6x) their respective investment amount.

Il
Series D Preferred Stock will become convertible at the option of the holders thereof into shares of the Company’s
common stock based on a formula to achieve a one-for-ten conversion ratio. The Series D Preferred Stock shall automatically convert
into shares of the Company’s common stock upon the fifth (5esimo) anniversary of the Date of Issuance.

On
an as-converted basis, the Series D Preferred Stock shall carry the right to ten (10) votes per share. The Series D Preferred
Stock shall not have any dividend preference but shall be entitled to receive, on a pari passu basis, dividends, if any,
that are declared and paid on any other class of the Company’s capital stock. The holders of Series D Preferred Stock shall
not have anti-dilution protection.

Come
of December 31, 2019, and through the date of filing, the Series D Preferred Stock had not been designated by the Board. Per
the terms of the 2017 Notes and 2020 Notes, if the Company has not designated the Series D Preferred Stock or if an insufficient
number of Series D Preferred shares exist upon a conversion by a note holder, then the outstanding loans will continue to accrue
interest at a rate of 8% per annum until which time the Company has designated a sufficient number of Series D Preferred shares.
As a result, the Company did not analyze the 2ND Loan for a potential beneficial conversion feature as the definition
of a firm commitment has not been met since the 2020 Notes were not convertible as of their respective dates of issuance or as
of December 31, 2019. Upon conversion of the 2ND Loan, the 2ND Loan Investors will release their second
lien on the IP. 2ND Loan Investors in the 2020 Financing will hold Series D Preferred Stock pari passu with
the Series D Preferred Stock of 1st Loan Investors in the 2017 Financing.

Convertible
Notes Payable – Related Parties

During the year ended
December 31, 2018, the Company entered into 2017 Notes with related parties in the aggregate principal amount of $1,870,000. Come
of December 31, 2018, the Company had borrowed $6,870,000 of 2017 Notes from related parties which were outstanding.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company entered into 2017 Notes with related parties in the aggregate principal
amount of $50,000 offset by the application of the 2017 Note in the principal amount of $250,000 that the Company entered into
with Timothy Scott and Leigh Anne Scott on February 28, 2018 that was applied to Dr. Scott’s Kleba Settlement agreement.
As of December 31, 2019, the Company had borrowed $6,670,000 of 2017 Notes from related parties which were outstanding.

Convertible
Notes Payable – Non-Related Parties

During the year
ended December 31, 2018, the Company entered into 2017 Notes with accredited investors in the aggregate principal amount of $2,606,000.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had borrowed $7,062,000 under these notes, all of which were outstanding as of that date.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company entered into 2017 Notes with accredited investors in the aggregate principal amount
of $6,335,000. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had borrowed $13,397,000 under these notes, all of which were outstanding
as of that date. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company entered into a 2020 Note with an accredited investor
in the principal amount of $100,000. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had borrowed $100,000 under this note.

5.
Related Party Transactions

Durante
the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company paid Mr. Bruce Horowitz (Capital Strategists) consulting fees of
$277,200 and $190,000, respectively, for services rendered. Accrued director fees for Mr. Horowitz as of December 31, 2019 and
2018 were $75,000 and $56,250, respectively. Mr. Horowitz serves as both COO and a Director.

See
Note 4 and Note 6 for details of other related party transactions.

Director
fees during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $385,000 and $333,357, respectively. Accrued directors’ fees
as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $792,524 and $407,524, respectively.

6.
Receivables

Il
following table summarizes the receivables at December 31, 2019 and 2018:

December 31, 2019
Tax Credit Legal Fees Settlement Total
Provectus Australia Tax Credit $ 55,058 $ 55,058
Gross receivable $ 455,500 $ 1,649,043 $ 2,104,543
Reserve for uncollectibility (455,500 ) (1,649,043 ) (2,104,543 )
Net receivable $ 55,058 55,058
Short-term receivable – Tax Credit 55,058 55,058
Short-term receivable – Settlement
Short-term receivable – Legal
Long-term receivable $ $ $ $

December
    31, 2018
Imposta
    Credit
Legal
    Fees
Settlement Total
Provectus Australia Tax Credit $ 5,074 $ 5,074
Gross receivable $ 911,000 $ 1,783,795 $ 2,694,795
Reserve for uncollectibility (455,500 ) (1,649,043 ) (2,104,543 )
Net receivable 455,500 134,752

595,326

Short-term receivable – Tax Credit
Short-term receivable – Settlement 134,752 134,752
Short-term receivable – Legal 455,500 455,500
Long-term receivable $ $ $ $

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2018, an officer of the Company offset his settlement amounts owed to the Company against accrued
payroll owed to him totaling $150,000. This offset reduced the amount of the settlement and was approved by the Company’s
Board.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, officers of the Company offset their settlement amounts owed to the Company against accrued
payroll and other payables totaling $535,361. This offset reduced the amount of the settlement and was approved by the
Company’s Board.

See
Note 12 – Litigation for additional details.

7.
Stockholders’ Deficiency

Authorized
Capital

Come
of December 31, 2019, the Company was authorized to issue 1,000,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value, and 25,000,000
shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value. The holders of the Company’s common stock are entitled to one vote per share.
The preferred stock is designated as follows: 240,000 shares to Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred
Stock”) and 24,760,000 shares undesignated.

Series
B Convertible Preferred Stock

On
August 25, 2016, the Company filed the Series B Certificate of Designation with the Delaware Secretary of State. The Series B
Certificate of Designation provides for the issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share. In the event
of the Company’s liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, holders of Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive
the amount of cash, securities or other property to which such holder would be entitled to receive with respect to such shares
of Series B Preferred Stock if such shares had been converted to common stock immediately prior to such event (without giving
effect for such purposes to any beneficial ownership limitation), subject to the preferential rights of holders of any class or
series of the Company’s capital stock specifically ranking by its terms senior to the Series B Preferred Stock as to distributions
of assets upon such event, whether voluntarily or involuntarily. The Series B Preferred Stock has no voting rights.

Il
holders of Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive cumulative dividends at the rate per share of 8% per annum of
the stated value per share, until the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance of the Series B Preferred Stock. The dividends
become payable, at the Company’s option in either cash, out of any funds legally available for such purpose, or in shares
of common stock, (i) upon any conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock, (ii) on each such other date as the Board may determine,
subject to written consent of the holders of Series B Preferred Stock holding a majority of the then issued and outstanding Series
B Preferred Stock, (iii) upon the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and (iv) upon occurrence of a fundamental
transaction, which includes any merger or consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets, exchange
or conversion of all of the common stock by tender offer, exchange offer or reclassification; provided, however, that if Series
B Preferred Stock is converted into shares of common stock at any time prior to the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance
of the Series B Preferred Stock, the holder will receive a make-whole payment in an amount equal to all of the dividends that,
but for the early conversion, would have otherwise accrued on the applicable shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted
for the period commencing on the conversion date and ending on the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance, less the amount
of all prior dividends paid on such converted Series B Preferred Stock before the date of conversion. Make-whole payments are
payable at the Company’s option in either cash, out of any funds legally available for such purpose, or in shares of common
stock. With respect to any dividend payments and make-whole payments paid in shares of common stock, the number of shares of common
stock to be issued to a holder of Series B Preferred Stock will be an amount equal to the quotient of (a) the amount of the dividend
payable to such holder divided by (b) the conversion price then in effect.

Altro
Common Stock Issuances

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company issued 1,000,000 shares of immediately vested restricted common stock as payment
of services, with an issuance date fair value of $80,000, which was recognized immediately.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company issued 229,090 shares of immediately vested restricted common stock with an issuance
date value of $11,538, which was recognized immediately.

8.
Stock Incentive Plan and Warrants

Il
Provectus Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. 2014 Equity Compensation Plan provides for the issuance of up to 20,000,000 shares of common
stock pursuant to stock options for the benefit of eligible employees and directors of the Company. Options granted under the
2014 Equity Compensation Plan are either “incentive stock options” within the meaning of Section 422 of the Internal
Revenue Code or options which are not incentive stock options. The stock options are exercisable over a period determined by the
Board of Directors (through its Compensation Committee), but generally no longer than 10 years after the date they are granted.
As of December 31, 2019, there were 18,900,000 shares available for issuance under the 2014 Equity Compensation Plan.

There
were no stock options granted during the years ended December 31, 2019 or 2018.

Il
following table summarizes option activity during the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

Weighted Average
Options Exercise Price
Outstanding and exercisable at January 1, 2018 3,350,000 $ 0.90
Granted
Exercised
Forfeited (150,000 ) 0.89
Outstanding and exercisable at December 31, 2018 3,200,000 $ 0.89
Granted
Exercised
Forfeited (200,000 ) 0.88
Outstanding and exercisable at December 31, 2019 3,000,000 $ 0.88

Il
following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding at December 31, 2019.

Number
    Outstanding
Weighted
    Average
Remaining Contractual
Number
    Exercisable
Exercise
    Prezzo
a
    December 31, 2019
Life a
    December 31, 2019
$ 0.67 200,000 3.60 200,000
$ 0.75 950,000 4.11 950,000
$ 0.84 150,000 2.50 150,000
$ 0.88 150,000 4.60 150,000
$ 0.93 575,000 1.76 575,000
$ 0.99 50,000 1.50 50,000
$ 1.00 525,000 0.60 525,000
$ 1.04 200,000 1.50 200,000
$ 1.16 200,000 .50 200,000
3,000,000 2.50 3,000,000

Come
of December 31, 2019, there was no intrinsic value of outstanding and exercisable options.

Warrants

Durante
the year-ended December 31, 2018, holders of warrants exercised warrants to purchase 12,653,077 shares of common stock at a price
of $0.053 per share. In connection with the exercises, the Company received cash proceeds of $674,409 and issued 12,653,077 shares
of common stock.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, holders of warrants exercised warrants to purchase 5,045,857 shares of common stock at a price
of $0.053 per share. In connection with the exercises, the Company received cash proceeds of $268,943 and issued 5,045,857 shares
of common stock.

Durante
the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company issued 387,500 five-year immediately vested warrants to a consultant to purchase
an aggregate of 387,500 shares of common stock with exercise prices ranging from $1.00 to $2.00 per share. The warrants had an
aggregate grant date fair value of $10,113, which was recognized immediately within stock compensation in general and administrative
expenses.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the
Company issued 37,500 three-year immediately vested warrants to a consultant to purchase an aggregate of 37,500 shares of common
stock with an exercise price of $0.2862 per share. The warrants had an aggregate grant date fair value of $1,328, which was recognized
immediately within stock compensation in general and administrative expenses.

Nel
applying the Black-Scholes option pricing model to warrants granted, the Company used the following assumptions:

For the Years Ended
December 31,
2019 2018
Contractual terms (years) 3.00-5.00 N / A
Expected volatility 129%-131 % N / A
Risk-free interest rate 1.82%-2.23 % N / A
Expected dividend 0.00 % n/a

Il
following table summarizes warrant activity during the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

Weighted
    Average
Warrants Exercise
    Prezzo
Outstanding
    and exercisable at January 1, 2018
186,873,032 $ 0.43
Granted
Exercised (12,653,077 ) 0.05
Forfeited (37,395,817 ) 1.00
Outstanding
    and exercisable at December 31, 2018
136,824,138 $ 0.27
Granted 425,000 0.94
Exercised (5,045,857 ) 0.05
Forfeited (6,093,749 ) 1.20
Outstanding
    and exercisable at December 31, 2019
126,109,532 $ 0.29

Il
following table summarizes information about warrants outstanding at December 31, 2019.

Number
    Outstanding
Weighted
    Average
Number
    Exercisable
Intrinsic
    Value
a
    December 31,
Remaining
    Contractual
a
    December 31,
a
    December 31,
Exercise
    Prezzo
2019 Life 2019 2019
$ 0.053 94,631,726 1.67 94,631,726 $ 160,874
$ 0.290 37,500 2.66 37,500 $
$ 0.85 28,482,344 0.48 28,482,344 $
$ 1.00 1,529,202 0.88 1,529,202 $
$ 1.12 366,000 4.39 366,000 $
$ 1.25 1,059,760 0.29 1,059,760 $
$ 2.00 3,000 4.39 3,000 $
126,109,532 2.11 126,109,532 $ 160,874

Holders of the outstanding warrants
are not entitled to vote and the exercise prices of such warrants are subject to customary anti-dilution provisions.

9.
Income Taxes

Il
domestic and foreign components of loss before income taxes from operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are
as follows:

Year
    ended December 31
2019 2018
Domestic $ (6,975,747 ) $ (7,954,841 )
Foreign 53,210 (198,214 )
Net
    Pre-Tax Loss
$ (6,922,537 ) $ (8,153,055 )

Il
income tax provision (benefit) consists of the following:

Year
    ended December 31
2019 2018
Federal:
Current $ $
Deferred 21.00 % (1,361,582 ) (1,385,438 )
State
    and local:
Current
Deferred 5.14 % (332,939 ) (338,773 )
26.14 % (1,694,521 ) (1,724,211 )
Change
    in valuation allowance
1,694,521 1,724,211
Income
    tax provision (benefit)
$ $

Il
reconciliations between the statutory federal income tax rate and the Company’s effective tax rate is as follows:

Year
    Ended December 31
2019 2018
Imposta
    benefit at federal statutory rate
(21.0 )% (21.0 )%
State
    income taxes, net of federal benefit
(5.1 )% (5.1 )%
Permanent
    differences
(1.3 )% (1.7 )%
Change
    in valuation allowance
24.5 % 20.8 %
Prior
    year true-up
(0.1 )% 5.8 %
Expiration
    of state net operating loss carryforwards
3.1 % 1.2 %
Miscellaneous (0.0 )% 0.0 %
Effective
    income tax rate
0.0 % 0.0 %

Il
components of the Company’s deferred income taxes are summarized below:

December
    31
2019 2018
Deferred
    Tax Assets:
Net
    operating loss carryforwards
$ 41,959,558 $ 41,114,624
Stock-based
    compensation
2,215,928 2,207,465
Research
    and development credit carryovers
2,917,857 2,791,710
Contribution
    carryovers
10,062 10,062
Accrued
    liabilities
1,041,286 490,467
Gross
    deferred tax assets
48,144,691 46,614,328
Deferred
    Tax Liabilities:
Intangible
    assets
(59,616 ) (235,013 )
Prepaid
    spese
(91,084 ) (90,881 )
Altro (40,581 ) (29,545 )
Gross
    deferred tax liabilities
(191,281 ) (355,439 )
Valuation
    allowance
(47,953,410 ) (46,258,889 )
Deferred
    tax asset, net of valuation allowance
$